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The Revelation

of [ST.] JOHN [THE DIVINE]*





EXPLANATORY NOTE

This posthumous work of Pastor Russell (arranged for use as a textbook) is much condensed, including the extracts from the Pastor's pen, all of which are referred back to his works. The abbreviations used are:

A, B, C, D,E, FThe six preceding volumes of "STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES".
(Citations to E in italic figures refer to old editions, figures in ordinary type to later editions.)
B. S. M..........."THE BIBLE STUDENTS MONTHLY."
H....................."What Say the Scriptures ABOUT HELL?"
P-D................. "PHOTO-DRAMA OF CREATION" Scenario.
T....................."TABERNACLE SHADOWS."
S....................."SPIRITISM" Pamphlet.
Z......................"ZION'S WATCH TOWER," followed by year and page.

The citations to REVELATION and EZEKIEL refer to the comments herein, as well as to the Bible text.
Other abbreviations used are:

Barnes..........Barnes' "Revelation".
Brit................."Encyclopedia Britannica."
Buck..............Buck's "Theological Dictionary".
Coffin............Coffin's "Story of Liberty".
Cook.............Cook's "Revelation" ; a compendium of the presentations of seventy-two leading commentators on Revelation, in all languages and all ages of the Church.
Edgar............Edgar's "Pyramid Passages". Vol. II.
McC...............McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia.
Mosheim......Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History.
S. B. D...........Smith's Bible Dictionary.
Smith.............Smith's "Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation".
Weym............Weymouth's New Testament in Modern Speech.



REVELATION 3

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WYCLIFFE, LUTHER AND RUSSELL

3:1. And [unto] BY the angel. — The next important messenger to the Church was John Wycliffe. "It was in 1378 A. D., the year of the 'Great Schism of the West,' when two popes were elected, one in Rome and the other in Avignon, that Wycliffe came out as the great Doctrinal Reformer. Workman, in Dawn of the Reformation, writes: 'Wycliffe's spiritual earnestness was shocked, his theory destroyed by the spectacle of two popes, each claiming to he the sole head of the Church, each labeling the other as Antichrist. To Wycliffe, the year of the Schism, 1378, was the crucial year of his life. He first urged that both popes should be set aside as having little in common with the Church of the Holy God. From this position of neutrality he quickly passed into one of antagonism to the Papacy itself.' In his Mediaeval Church History, Archbishop Trench says: 'The year 1378 marked the turning-point in Wycliffe's career. Hitherto he had concerned himself with matters of mixed ecclesiastical and political import, but henceforth he devoted himself exclusively to doctrinal matters and came out as the Reformer. He began in earnest the translation of the Bible into English, and took the next decisive step by an open attack, forced upon him by his studies of the Bible, against Transubstantiation.' Wycliffe thus attacked the very bulwark of Antichrist's stronghold, for the doctrine of Transubstantiation, or the sacrifice of the Mass, annulled the true sacrifice of Christ. Because of this, the Papal system became in God's sight the 'desolating abomination.' (Dan. 11:31.)" — Edgar.
Of the church in Sardis. — "Sardis is said to mean that which remains, as if it signified something out of which life or virtue had gone. The nominal church during this period had a form of godliness without its power. Sardis was the remains of the true Church, which had been driven into the wilderness; but when the persecution began to subside, her zeal also abated." — Z. 16-347.
Write. — Wycliffe wrote the first translation of the Bible into English.
These things saith He that hath the seven Spirits of God. —The seven lamps of fire (Rev. 4:5), or seven eyes
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sent forth into all the earth (Rev. 5:6); i. e., perfect knowledge. — Rev. 1:4.
And the seven stars. — How each of the Lord's messengers was kept! St. Paul had (supposedly) eight years of liberty after his first imprisonment, planted the Gospel in Spain and revisited the scenes of earlier labors; St. John is said to have been thrown into a caldron of boiling oil, but escaped unharmed and died of old age; Arius died a natural death; as did Peter Waldo, John Wycliffe, Martin Luther and Charles T. Russell, although all had reason to expect martyrdom at the hands of ecclesiasticism. The year that Peter Waldo died, his tenets were condemned by an ecumenical council. "Wycliffe preached unmolested; but the Council of Constance (May 6, 1415) condemned his doctrines, and in 1428 his remains were dug up and burned; the ashes were cast into the adjoining Swift, which, as Wordsworth poetically remarked, conveyed them through the Avon and the Severn into the sea, and thus disseminated them over the world. His doctrines, carried into Bohemia, originated the Hussite movement. The New Testament was published about 1378, and the entire Old Testament was completed shortly before his death." — McC.
I know thy works, that thou hast a name that thou livest. — Many who admired Wycliffe were not real Christians. A man not willing to go to the stake for his religion has none.
And art dead. — Spiritually. — Luke 9:60.
3:2. Be watchful, and strengthen the things which remain, that [are] WERE ready to die. — Many among Wycliffe's admirers lost faith and love, and to that degree died, while others had some spiritual life. These the Lord desired to awaken, to strengthen, to encourage. — Eph. 5:14.
For I have not found thy works perfect before MY God.  — Revised Version reads, "For I have found no works of thine fulfilled before My God."
3:3. Remember [therefore] how thou hast received. — Received the entire Word in the English tongue.
And heard. — Wycliffe was the author of more than 200 works, chiefly tracts, on the Ransom.
And hold fast, and reform. — (Diaglott) Had Wycliffe's labors been properly appreciated, the Reformation would have been set forward 150 years.
If therefore thou shalt not [watch] REPENT. — Change your course of conduct.
I will come on thee as a thief. — "Many today have the Sardis characteristics." To such, this is a warning. Seven
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times our Lord's Second Coming is described as being thief-like, stealthy. Those who are asleep will be awakened only after His work of destruction has progressed. His presence will be recognized by the sleepers only as the noise of spoiling the Strong Man's House gradually increases." (Z.'16-347; 1 Thes. 5:2; Matt. 24:43; 2 Pet. 3:10.) "The stealthiness of the thief, not the violence of the robber, is implied in the original." — Cook.
And thou shalt not know what hour I will come upon thee. — "Failing to realize the fact that spiritual bodies cannot be seen by human eyes without a miracle, some cannot understand how He can be present while 'all things continue as they were since the beginning of creation.' (2 Pet 3:3, 4.) Thus they are unable to understand 'the signs of the times' revealing His return." — Z.'16-347.
3:4. BUT thou hast a few names [even] in Sardis which) have not defiled their garments. — But have given due heed to the Message of the hour, the Ransom.
And they shall walk with Me in white. — Fully covered by the robe of Christ's righteousness.
For they are worthy. — None who trust in sacrifices of the Mass or in other sacrifices than that of Calvary, can ever be worthy in God's sight. — Matt. 10:37.
3:5. He that overcometh, [the same] THUS. — The test, apparently, was on the question of transubstantiation.
Shall be clothed in white raiment. — "The pictures given of the Heavenly Father represent Him as clothed (Psa. 104:2); and the pictures of our Lord represent Him as clothed. The angels who appeared at the time of our Lord's resurrection are represented as clothed in white. Our Lord said: 'Blessed is he that watcheth, and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked, and they see his shame.' (Rev. 16:15.) The glorified Church is represented, not as taking off the robe of righteousness, but continuing to walk in white raiment, not as now, in a robe of reckoned righteousness, but in a robe of actual righteousness." — Z.'14-11; Rev. 19:8.
And I will not blot out his name out of the Book of Life.  — "In the book are written the names of all those who have made with the Lord 'a Covenant by Sacrifice.' The name of each of these is entered in the Lamb's Book of Life, when he starts to live the new life. If they are faithful, their names will not be blotted out; and they will attain all those glorious things which are promised to those who love Him supremely. (Rev. 3:21.)" — Z.'15-119; Rev. 13:8; Psa. 69:28; Dan. 12:1; Phil. 4:3; Lu. 10:20.
But I will confess his name before My Father, and before His angels. — "In the end, the overcomers will each
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be so grandly developed that the Lord will not be ashamed to confess any of them and to say, 'Here is one of My followers. Here is another. They have walked in My footsteps and have overcome.' But He will be ashamed of any who are ashamed of Him or of His words. (Luke 9:26.)" — Z.'15-119; Luke 12:8, 9.
3:6. He that hath an ear. — A spiritual ear. "My sheep hear My voice." — John 10:27.
Let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. — "Blessed are the people that know the joyful sound." — Psa. 89:15.
3:7. And [to] BY the angel. — The next messenger to the Church was Martin Luther. "There is considerable similarity between the work begun on Pentecost and that of Luther. The Reformation was, in a sense, the beginning of a new era, a dawning of light where all had been darkness, a new start in the way of Truth." — Z.'16-347.
Of the church in Philadelphia. — "Philadephia means brotherly love. This stage of the Church's history began at the Reformation; and there are many still living who possess the characteristics described." (Z.'16-347.) The exact point of time at which the Philadelphia epoch of the Church began was at midday, October 31, 1517. It was at that hour that Luther nailed his ninety-five theses on the church door at Wittenberg. "Nailing up that paper was the beginning of a great division in the Church; of thrones tumbled into the dust and kings with them; of empires rent asunder; of lands desolated by war; of massacres and horrible outrages against the lives and liberties of men; of thirty years continuous war in Germany; of Paris and the vine-clad valleys of Italy drenched in blood; of fires kindled all over England for the burning of men, women and children; of men hurled headlong from precipices, roasted over slow fires, starving in dungeons, subjected to every form of cruelty — but with all this, the advance of Justice, truth and liberty, the beginning of a new era in human affairs." (Coffin.) "The theses ran through all Germany in fourteen days, for all the world was complaining about the indulgences; and Luther became renowned, because at last somebody had come who took hold of the thing." — McC.
Write. — Luther wrote the first translation of the Bible into German.
These things saith He that is [holy] TRUE. — The direct reference is to Christ (1 John 5:20); but characteristic of Luther was his great love of truth. When the Papal legate came demanding that he recant, he replied, "I stand by the truth. I will not take it back."
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He that is [true] HOLY. — See Mark 1:24. Luther's special message was "Justification by faith" — real holiness. One of the theses on the door was, "Those who truly repent of their sins have a full remission of guilt and penalty."
He that hath the key of David. — "All power in Heaven and earth." (Matt. 28:18; Luke 1:32.) Luther's theses were antagonistic to the system actually ruling all over the world. When a representative came warning that his death would surely follow failure to recant, and asking him where he could go when all had orders not to harbor him, he replied, "I will abide under the cope of heaven."
[He] AND that openeth. — See Luke 24:32.
And no man [shutteth] SHALL SHUT. — "No doubt all the powers of Satan were exerted to close the door then opened; but 'He that is true' had said, 'which no man can shut.'" — Z.'16-347; Isa. 22:22.
And shutteth and no man [openeth] SHALL OPEN. — The door of opportunity for the Roman Catholic Church to repent swung shut the day Luther was excommunicated. (Rev. 2:21.) "Luther was not in the least disconcerted by this sentence, which he had for some time expected. He renewed his appeal to the general council; declared the pope to be that Antichrist, or Man of Sin whose appearance is foretold in the New Testament; declaimed against his tyranny with greater vehemence than ever; and at last, having assembled the University he cast the canon law, together with the bull of excommunication, into the flames." — Buck.
3:8. I know thy works. — A striking feature of Luther's character was his promptness to do whatever he saw to be the Lord's will. When the great test came, Luther said to Erasmus: "You desire to walk upon eggs without crushing them." Erasmus replied: "I will not be unfaithful to the cause of Christ, at least so far as the Age will permit me." "I will go to Worms," shouted Luther, "though the devils were combined against me as thick as tiles upon the housetops!"
Behold I have set before thee an open door. — See 1 Cor. 16:9; Acts 14:27.
[And] WHICH no man can shut [it]. —"While the Roman pontiff thought everything safe and settled, and all pious and good men were nearly in despair of the religious reformation, so earnestly desired, a certain obscure and inconsiderable monk in Saxony, a province of Germany, suddenly opposed himself single-handed with incredible resolution to the power of Rome. This was Martin Luther." — Mosheim.
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For thou hast a little strength. — "Compared with the mighty hosts of their enemies, the little band of Reformers had but 'a little strength;' but they knew that they had the Truth, and they fully trusted the Giver." — Z.'16-347.
And hast kept My Word. — "Whoso keepeth His Word, in him verily is the love of God perfected." — 1 John 2:5.
And hast not denied My name. — "If we deny Him, He also will deny us." — 2 Tim. 2:12.
3:9. Behold I [will make] HAVE MADE them of the synagogue of Satan. — The opponents of the reformers were already of the synagogue of Satan. — Rev. 2:13.
Which say they are Jews. — Claim to be Israelites indeed, saints. — Rev. 2:9.
And are not, but do lie. — Papacy is one of the two systems of rulership (imperial power being the other) congenitally "spotted like a leopard," as far as the Truth is concerned. — Dan. 11:27; Rev. 13:2.
Behold I will make them to come. — "All nations whom Thou hast made shall come." — Psa. 86:9.
And worship before thy feet. — "The sons also of them that afflicted thee shall come bending unto thee; and all that despised thee shall bow themselves down at the soles of thy feet" — Isa. 60:14; 49:23.
And [to] THOU SHALT know that I have loved thee. — See Eph. 2:7.
3:10. Because thou hast kept the word of My patience.  — My patience-enjoining word. — Matt. 10:22; Lu. 8:15.
I also will keep thee. — "As to the Philadelphia stage of the Church, and their being saved from the hour of temptation, we think possibly the Lord meant that some of the Church of that epoch would live over into the present period, and that they would not be subjected to the special trials of this hour. For instance, we think of a very fine old gentleman, who was about ninety years of age at the time we are about to mention. He was pastor of a church. He seemed to receive Present Truth with a great deal of joy and spoke it forth with much zeal. But he was surrounded with so much opposition at home, and in the church to which he was attached as a minister, that he could not seem to trust to his mental judgment. This Scripture which we are considering has rather comforted our mind with respect to him and others like him." — Z.'15-200.
From the hour of temptation. — "'The hour of temptation' has been the Harvest time. The majority of professing Christians of the world — probably more than three-. fourths — have lost all faith in the Bible, and fallen into
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Evolution, Higher Criticism, Christian Science, Theosophy. Spiritism, New Thought, etc. They are not able to stand in this 'evil day.'" (Z.'15-199.) Additionally, "so far as we are able to judge, the same conditions prevail today amongst Bible students which the Apostle pointed out to the Elders of the Church of Ephesus. (Acts 20:28-32.)" — Z.'16-328.
Which shall come upon all the world. — "We believe that this temptation to headiness and strife is spreading gradually in every direction; and the Master assured us that unless these days would be cut short by the establishment of His Kingdom in the hands of the Elect, no flesh would survive." — Z.'16-327; Rev. 7:1, 3; 16:14; Matt. 24:21.
To try them that dwell upon the earth. — '"We understand that the spirit of selfishness and ambition, which is driving the nations insanely to war for commercial supremacy, will increase more and more, and will involve everybody." — Z.'l6-327; Rev. 6:10; 8:13; 11:10; 13:8, 14.
3:11. [Behold,] I come quickly. — To Smyrna (73-325 A. D.) and Pergamos (325-1160 A. D.) nothing was said about Christ's Second Advent; to Thyatira (1160-1378) the Message was, "Hold fast till I come"; to Sardis (1378-1518) it was, "If therefore thou shalt not reform, I will come on thee as a thief; to Philadelphia (1518-1874) it was, "Behold, I come quickly." How evident that these messages to the Churches are epochs drawing nearer and nearer to the climax of history, the Fifth Universal Empire, now come at last!
Hold that fast which thou hast. — "The Miller movement was a separation, as between those who kept the Word of God with patience and those who lost their faith in His Word. The Philadelphia Church, which patiently passed through so severe a trial of their faith, would not be subjected to the later test." — Z.'15-199.
That no man take thy crown. — "Unfaithfulness may lead to the blotting out of some names and the giving of their crowns to others." (P165.) "It is our expectation that this work of going out and coming in will continue until the last member of the New Creation shall have been found worthy, and all the crowns everlastingly apportioned." — F95; 1 Sam. 16:1; Rev. 2:10.
3:12. Him that overcometh will I make a pillar [in] TO the Temple of my God. — "During the Philadelphia period the faithful have either been obliged to come out of the nominal temple or have been cast out The reward promised such is that each will be a pillar in the eternal Temple — a part which cannot be removed while
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the structure exists." — Z.'16-347; Gal. 2:9; 1 Kings 7:21, . 22; Jer. 1:18; 1 Cor. 3:17; Eph. 2:19-22.
And he shall [go no more] NOT GO out. — "During their trial state their names were cast out as evil; they were not recognized as Christians. All this is to be reversed. 'The Lord knoweth them that are His.'" — Z.'16-347.
And I will write upon him the name of My God. — "And I looked, and, lo, a Lamb stood on the mount Sion, and with Him an hundred and forty and four thousand, having His Father's name written on their foreheads [intellects]." — Rev. 14:1; 22:4.
And the name of the city of My God. — "And they shall call them, The holy people, The redeemed of the Lord: and thou shalt be called. Sought out, A city not forsaken."  — Isa. 62:12; Ezek. 48:35; Jer. 23:6; 33:16.
Which is New Jerusalem. — "Glorious City of Peace! whose foundations, laid in justice, can never be moved, and whose builder and designer is God! It is in the light which will shine from this glorious City (Kingdom) of God that the nations (people) will walk on the Highway of Holiness, up to perfection and to full harmony with God." — Rev. 21:2, 10, 24; A 295.
Which cometh down out of Heaven from My God. — "A city is a symbol of a kingdom or dominion, and so God's Kingdom is symbolized by the New Jerusalem, the new dominion coming from Heaven to earth. At first it will consist of only the Bride of Christ." — A295; Heb. 12:18-22.
And I will write upon him My new name. — "'Our Righteousness of Jehovah.' How appropriate is this name to the work and office of our Lord Jesus! Did He not stand as the Representative of God's righteousness and suffer the penalty of Justice as man's Ransom — that God might be just, and yet be the Justifier of him that believeth in Jesus? Surely no name could be more appropriate. (Jer. 33:16; 23:6; T 102.) And that this name will be appropriate to the glorified Church all can readily see: she not only shares her Lord's sufferings for righteousness, 'filling up that which is behind of the afflictions of Christ' (Col 1:24; 1 Pet 5:9), but is also promised a share in all the glories of her Lord, as a wife shares her husband's honors and name." — E45, 42; Isa. 9:6; Rev. 2:17; 19:12.
3:13, He that hath an ear. — "Having eyes, see ye not? And having ears, hear ye not?" — Mark 8:18.
Let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. — "Let these sayings sink down into your ears." — Luke 9:44.
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3:14. And [unto] BY the angel. — The special messenger to the last Age of the Church was Charles T. Russell, born February 16, 1852. He has privately admitted his belief that he was chosen for his great work from before his birth. His mother died when he was nine years old; and at the age of eleven Charles formed a business partnership with his father, himself writing the articles of agreement under which they transacted business. When he was but twelve years of age, his father found him in the store one time at 2 a.m., poring over a concordance, unconscious of the lapse of time. We give some extracts from his autobiography:
"We begin the narrative at the year 1868, when the Editor, having been a consecrated child of God for some years, and a member of the Congregational Church and of the Y. M. C. A., began to be shaken in faith regarding many long accepted doctrines. Brought up a Presbyterian, indoctrinated from the catechism, and being naturally of an inquiring mind, I fell a ready prey to the logic of infidelity, as soon as I began to think for myself. But that which at first threatened to be the utter shipwreck of faith in God and the Bible, was, under God's providence, overruled for good, and merely wrecked my confidence in human creeds and systems of Bible interpretations. I was led gradually to see that though each of the creeds contained some elements of Truth, they were, on the whole, misleading and contradictory of God's Word. Among other theories, I stumbled upon Adventism. Seemingly by accident, one evening I dropped into a dusty, dingy hall in Allegheny, Pa., where I had heard that religious services were held, to see if the handful who met there had anything more sensible to offer than the creeds of the great churches. There, for the first time, I heard something of the views of Second Adventism, by Jonas Wendell, long since deceased. Thus I confess indebtedness to Adventists as well as to other Bible students. Though his Scripture exposition was not entirely clear, and though it was very far from what we now rejoice in, it was sufficient, under God, to reestablish my wavering faith in the Divine inspiration of the Bible, and to show that the records of the Apostles and the Prophets are indissolubly linked,
"When in 1872 I came to examine the subject of Restitution from the standpoint of the Ransom-price given by our Lord Jesus for Adam, and consequently for all lost in Adam, it settled the matter of Restitution completely, and gave me the fullest assurance that ALL must come forth from their graves and be brought to a clear knowl-
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edge of the Truth and to a full opportunity to gain everlasting life through Christ. The years following, to 1876, were years of continued growth in grace and in knowledge on the part of the handful of Bible students with whom I met in Allegheny. We progressed from our first crude and indefinite ideas of Restitution to clearer understanding of the details; but God's due time for clear light had not yet come. During this time, too, we came to recognize the difference between our Lord as 'the Man who gave Himself," and as the One who would come again, a Spirit Being. We saw that spirit beings can be present and yet invisible to men. ... It seems that not long after their 1874 disappointment, a reader of The Herald of the Morning, who had a copy of the Emphatic Diaglott, noticed something in it which he thought peculiar — that in Matthew 24:27, 37, 39, the Greek word parousia, which in our Common Version is rendered 'coming,' is in the Diaglott translated 'presence' — evidently the correct translation of the Greek. This was the clue; and following it, they had been led through prophetic time toward proper views regarding the object and manner of our Lord's Return, and then to the examination of the time when the things indicated in God's Word as related to Christ's parousia should take place. Thus God leads His children often from different starting points of Truth. But where the heart is earnest and trustful, the results must be to draw all together.
"There were no books or other publications setting forth the time prophecies as then understood. So I paid Mr. Barbour's expenses to come to see me at Philadelphia (where I had business engagements during the summer of 1876), to show me fully and Scripturally, if he could, that the prophecies indicated 1874 as the date at which the Lord's presence and the Harvest began. He came, and the evidence satisfied me. Being a person of positive convictions, and fully consecrated to the Lord, I at once saw that the special times in which we live have an important bearing upon our duty and work as Christ's disciples; that since we are living in the time of the Harvest, the Harvest work should be done; and that Present Truth is the sickle by which the Lord would have us do a reaping work everywhere among His children. I inquired of Mr. Barbour as to what was being done by him and The Herald. He replied that nothing was being done." — Z.'16-170, 171.
Pastor Russell took the place of Mr. Barbour who became unfaithful and upon whom was fulfilled the prophecies of Matt 24:48-51 and Zech. 11:15-17.
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"In 1877 Pastor Russell called a meeting of all the ministers of Allegheny and Pittsburgh, showed them the Scriptures which indicated our Lord's presence and urged them to investigate and proclaim the message. All of the ministers of the two cities were present; all of the ministers of the two cities refused to believe. In the same year he determined to give up secular work and devote his entire time and fortune to the work indicated in the Scriptures as incident to the close of the Gospel Age and change of dispensation impending. "As a means of determining whether his course was in harmony with the Scriptures, and also as a means of demonstrating his own sincerity, he decided to test the Lord's approval as follows: (1) Devote his life to the cause; (2) Invest his fortune in the promulgation of the work; (3) Prohibit collections at all meetings; (4) Depend on unsolicited contributions (wholly voluntary) to continue the work after his fortune was exhausted. In 1881, 1,400,000 copies of Food for Thinking Christians were distributed free at the doors of the Protestant churches in the United States, Canada and Great Britain on three consecutive Sundays, by A.D. T. messenger boys." — Obituary.
As to his education we quote his own words: "As respects my education in Greek and Hebrew: Not only do I not claim very special knowledge of either language, but -I claim that not one minister in a thousand is either a Hebrew or a Greek scholar. To be able to spell out a few Greek words is of no earthly value. Nor is it necessary longer to study these languages in order to have knowledge of the Bible. Our Presbyterian friends have gotten out at great cost Young's Analytical Hebrew, Chaldaic, Greek and English Lexicon Concordance, which any one may procure. And our Methodist friends have! issued a similar work — Strong's Analytical Concordance and Lexicon. And there is a still older one entitled Englishman's Hebrew, Chaldaic, Greek and English Lexicon and Concordance. Additionally, Liddell and Scott's Greek Lexicon Is a standard authority. The prices of these are not beyond the reach of the average man. By these works scholarly information respecting the original text of the Bible is obtainable. I have all four of these works and have used them faithfully. Very few college professors, even, would risk to give a critical translation of any text of Scripture without consulting these very works of reference, which are standard. Additionally I remind you of the many translations of the Bible now extant — all of them very good. I have all of these and find them useful in comparison and study of any text — one
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sometimes giving a thought which another may not. The other day, for curiosity's sake, I counted Bibles in different translations, etc., in my study, and found that I have thirty-two." — Z.'14-286.
As to his ordination we quote him again: "There are two ordinations proper. One is of God; one of men. The ordination of God is the begetting of the Holy Spirit If any are preaching without this ordination, they are doing something that they are not authorized to do. There comes, however, another special ordination of those who are called ministers of the Gospel, in which class I count myself. This is ordination by the Church, and is recognized by all denominations everywhere. By some it is considered a mere form, by some it is performed with great ceremony, by others with less ceremony. But to our understanding, each congregation should have those whom it has chosen ordained in a Scriptural way — by the stretching forth of hands — by a vote. Whoever has not been ordained in these two ways is not an ordained minister of the Gospel in the Scriptural sense. First, the Divine ordination is necessary; second, the earthly ordination is necessary. By the grace of God I have both of these." — Z.15-358.
As to his doctrines we quote him the third time: "To us the Scriptures clearly teach that the Church is 'the Temple of the living God' — peculiarly 'His workmanship'; its construction has been in progress throughout the Gospel Age — ever since Christ became the world's Redeemer and Chief Corner Stone of His Temple, through which, when finished, God's blessing shall come 'to all people,' and they find access to Him. (1 Cor. 3:16, 17; Eph. 2:20; Gen. 28:14; Gal. 3:29.) That meantime the chiseling, shaping and polishing of consecrated believers in Christ's Atonement for sin progresses; and when the last of these living stones,' 'elect and precious,' shall have been made ready, the great Master Workman will bring all together in the First Resurrection; and the Temple shall be filled with His glory, and be the meeting place between God and men throughout the Millennium. (Rev. 15:5-8; 21:3.) We affirm the pre-existence of Jesus as the mighty Word (Logos) — Spokesman — 'the beginning of the creation of God,' 'the First-Born of every creature,' the active Agent of the Heavenly Father, Jehovah, in all the work of creation. 'Without Him was not anything made that was made.' (Rev. 3:14; Col. 1:15; John 1:3.) We affirm that the Word (Logos) was made flesh — became the Babe of Bethlehem — thus becoming the Man Jesus, 'holy, harmless, undefiled, separate from sinners.' As we affirm the
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humanity of Jesus, we equally affirm the Divinity of Christ — 'God also hath highly exalted Him, and given Him a name above every name.' (Heb. 7:26; Phil. 2:9.)
"We acknowledge that the personality of the Holy Spirit is the Father and the Son; that the Holy Spirit proceeds from both, and is manifested in all who receive the begetting of the Holy Spirit and thereby become sons of God. (John 1:12; 1 Pet 1:3.) We affirm the resurrection of Christ — that He was put to death in flesh but quickened in Spirit We deny that He was raised in the flesh, and challenge any statement to that effect as being unscriptural. (1 Pet 3:18; 2 Cor. 3:17; 1 Cor. 15:8; Acts 26:13-15.) That the basis of Hope, for the Church and the World, lies in the fact that 'Jesus Christ by the grace of God, tasted death for every man,' 'a Ransom for all,' and will be the true Light which lighteth every man that cometh into the world,' 'in due time.' (Heb. 2:9; John 1:9; 1 Tim. 2:5, 6.) That the Hope of the Church is that she may be like her Lord, 'see Him as He is,' be partaker of the Divine nature,' and share His glory as His Joint-heir. (1 John 3:2; John 17:24; Rom. 8:17; 2 Pet. 1:4.) That the present mission of the Church is the perfecting of the saints for the future work of service; to develop in herself every grace; to be God's witness to the world; and to prepare to be kings and priests in the next Age. (Eph. 4:12; Matt 24:14; Rev. 1:6; 20:6.) That the Hope for the World lies in the blessings of knowledge and opportunity to be brought to all by Christ's Millennial Kingdom — the Restitution of all that was lost in Adam, to all the willing and obedient, at the hands of their Redeemer and His glorified Church — when all the wilfully wicked shall be destroyed. (Acts 3:19-23; Isa. 35.)" — B. S. M.
The amount of work that Pastor Russell performed is incredible, and it is doubtful whether it was ever equalled by any other human being. When he was in his twenties he was refused the lease of a property because the owner thought he would surely die before the lease had expired. For fifty years he suffered constantly with sick headaches, due to a fall in his youth, and for twenty-five years had such distressing hemorrhoids that it was impossible for him to rest in the easiest chair; yet in the past forty years he traveled a million miles, delivered 30,000 sermons and table talks — many of them 2½ hours long — wrote over 50,000 pages (of this size) of advanced Biblical exposition, often dictated 1,000 letters per month, managed every department of a world-wide evangelistic campaign employing 700 speakers, per-
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sonally compiled the most wonderful Biblical drama ever shown; and with all that, he found time in the course of each year to personally aid thousands with his fatherly counsel. At one time his writings were subjected to an analysis of 20,511 Scripture expositions. These were assembled in Biblical order and disclosed but six points of inquiry, all easily harmonized. No writer, not even excepting the writers of the Bible, has ever had such critical readers. His works have been published in 35 languages. During the last eight days of his life he had appointments in California, Kansas, Oklahoma, Nebraska and New York; and though for several days manifestly dying, with cystitis (caused by excessive travel and speaking), he declined to cancel any engagements, and went out of this life October 31, 1916, on a railroad train en route to his Kansas appointment. At the age of 30 he had accumulated a fortune of over $300,000, but died penniless, his own fortune, as well as all the large sums contributed to the cause, having been used up in the Master's service. He was beloved everywhere by those who "follow the Lamb whithersoever He goeth." — Rev. 14:4. For further particulars of Pastor Russell's service of God's people see Memorial Number of The Watch Tower and Herald of Christ's Presence.
Of the church [of the Laodiceans] IN LAODICEA. — It is significant that in the first epoch of the Church there were Nicolaitanes (nikon ton laon), "vanquishers of the people," a clergy class who succeeded in pulling the wool over the eyes of the common people; but that the last age of the Church is Laodicean (laos dike), "justice for the people." We find we get along much better without the clergy than we did with them. The Laodicean period of the Church extends from the fall of 1874 to the demise of the last spirit-begotten one. One by one the last members of the Body are now passing. "The parallels affected merely the nominal Jewish House there and the nominal Christian House here. Both were rejected because of failure to be in the right condition of heart for the truths that were due to them — both rejected for destruction. The Jewish System was a Church-State affair, paralleled here by the great Church-State systems of Europe, whose destruction began in 1914. Let us remember, however, that the three and a half years of Jesus' ministry were more a time of preparation of the Apostles to be the Instruments for the harvesting and a sharpening preparation of the Sickle of Truth for the later work, which began at Pentecost Prior to Pentecost, there was no 'garner' into which to gather the wheat.
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"JEWISH AND CHRISTIAN PARALLELS

"Jewish-Nominal ChurchChristian-Nominal Church
A. D. 29-38A. D. 1874-1878
'They knew not the time of their visitation.'
"A. D. 33-36 A. D. 1878-1881
The Most Holy anointed, Divine favor prolonged for three and a half years to complete the 70 weeks of favor promised to Israel, their rejection being deferred.
"A. D. 36-73A. D. 1881-1918
Because of the overspreading of abominations. He shall make it desolate, even until the consummation, or utter destruction — until all that God has predetermined shall be accomplished.  — Dan. 9:24-27." — Z.'16-264. See pages 594, 595.


The foregoing is Pastor Russell's last expression on the subject of chronology; and we believe that it was designed to be of great value to the Lord's people at this hour. "The Apostles, the Prophets and the angels all desired and sought earnestly to know what time the Spirit of God Indicated through the Prophets. And this interest on the part of His children is ever pleasing to God. He called the Inquiring Daniel greatly beloved, and answered his Inquiry so far as was consistent with His Plan. Such inquiry should not be regarded as an improper prying into the secrets of God. God would have us quickly discern the Truth as it becomes due." (B17.) "Let none, then, of the truly consecrated under-value these prophetic time-evidences, which were designed to guide our words and deeds in the early dawn of the Millennial Day. These prophetic time-proofs were largely God's means of drawing the attention of the writer more carefully to other features of the Divine Plan." — B31.
Daniel "understood by books" (Jeremiah's prophecy) the length of the great captivity of the children of Israel. (Dan. 9:2.) At Christ's First Advent there was but one time-prophecy calling attention to that event (Dan. 9:24-27), yet all the people "were in expectation" of it. (Luke 3:15.) In the year 1190 the good monk Joachim declared that the Papal system was Antichrist, that the history of mankind is divided into three ages, and that in the year 1260 the Papacy would give way to a new system in which the whole world would be "one vast monastery." "In 1260 the Council of Aries pronounced all followers Of
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Joachim heretics." His application of the correct principle, "a year for a day," made in the very depths of the Dark Ages, is one of the most pathetic incidents in the history of mankind; hut his study of time-prophecy brought him peace and joy of heart. He was an opponent of the prevailing "doctrine of the Trinity." William Miller, in the year 1829, was privileged to see (approximately) the correct date for the setting up of the abomination of desolation (539 A. D.), and for the beginning of the Time of the End (1799 A. D.) Morton Edgar, author of Pyramid Passages, has found foreshown in the Great Pyramid of Egypt abundant evidence of the accuracy of the Bible chronology of Pastor Russell and the supplements thereto supplied by Dr. John Edgar, deceased. These findings are set forth in his work, Pyramid Passages, Vol. II, of which we recommend sections numbered in the following table. For convenience we give the citations to Pastor Russell's works in which the same items are discussed. The Pyramid is still there, and the measurements can be made by anybody. Pastor Russell's chronology was written before he ever saw the Pyramid.


DateEventPastor Russell's WorksSections
of Pyramid Passages
Fall 4127 B.C.Fall of Adam.Z 04-34325-30-58
Fall 3127 B.C.End of Adam's 1000-year day.Z 04-34325-28
Fall 2473 B.C.Flood.B 4224-30
Fall 2021 B.C.Birth of Isaac.B 23145
Spring 1813 B.C.Death of Jacob.B 218-23216-17
Spring 1615 B.C.Exodus and giving of the Law.B 4211
Spring 1575 B.C.Entrance into Canaan.B 4243-46
Fall 626 B.C.Last Jubilee.B 18550
Fall 607 B.C.Desolation of the Land.B 5119-46-48
Fall 455 B.C.Nehemiah's Commission.B 6751-52-53
Fall 2 B.C.Birth of Christ.B 5410-43
Fall 29 A.D.Baptism of ChristB 6010-24-43-58
Spring 33 A.D.Death of Christ.B 6110-11-14-32-45
Fall 36 A.D.Conversion of CorneliusB 7151
Spring 1378 A.D.Wycliffe.Z '05-18537
Spring 1521 A.D.Diet of Worms.Z '05-18038
Fall 1846 A.D.Evangelical Alliance.C '95-11914-52
Fall 1874 A.D.Second Advent of the Lord.B 173-24716-32-50
Spring 1878 A.D.Favor to Jews and sleeping Saints.C 23317-28
Fall 1914 A.D.End of Times of the Gentiles.B 7319-48
Fall 2875 A.D.Restitution completed.Z '04-34437
Fall 2914 A.D.Dominion restored to mankindZ '04-34358


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The chronology as it appears in the STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES is accurate. The year 1914 brought the end of the Times of the Gentiles, but not the end of the Harvest work. Have the teachings of the Parallels lost their value? Not at all. The point not previously noticed is that the Jewish polity was not to be destroyed in Jerusalem only, but throughout all Judea. Nor does Judea mean all of Palestine. The actual depopulation of the whole of Palestine did not occur until the year 135 A. D. (corresponding to our year 1980), on the ninth day of the month of Ab, the anniversary of the burning of the Temple under Titus. On that day came to an end the insurrection of Bar-Cocheba, the false Messiah, who wrought his own destruction and that of 580,000 of his followers, when he attempted to regain control of Judea. and Jerusalem. The struggle was of five years' duration, having begun in 130 A. D. "It was the effort, under the leadership of Bar-Cocheba, to regain their independence, that brought about a repetition of scenes enacted under Titus, and resulted actually in the depopulation of Palestine. The whole of Judea was turned into a desert; about 985 towns and villages were laid in ashes; fifty of their fortresses were razed to the ground; even the name of their capital was changed to AElia Capitolina. and they were forbidden to approach it on pain of death; thousands of those who had escaped death were reduced to slavery, and such as could not be thus disposed of were transported into Egypt." — McC.
When the Lord gave His wonderful prophecy in which the destinies of nominal Fleshly Israel, nominal Spiritual Israel, and the Israel of God, are set forth, it was in answer to three definite questions: "When shall these things be? and what shall be the sign of Thy Parousia, and of the end of the Age?" (Matt 24:3.) The Lord did not ignore their question. He answered it with a reply that sweeps the history of twenty centuries. He showed that the end of Fleshly Israel foreshadowed the end of Spiritual Israel. Fleshly Israel had three ends; the destruction of Jerusalem in A. D. 70, the complete subjugation of Judea in A. D. 73, and the actual depopulation of the whole of Palestine in A. D. 135. Which did He mean should be the end that would be a guide to His followers? Not the end in A.D. 70, foreshadowing 1915; for the Harvest of the Gospel Age is still in progress. Not the end in A. D, 135, foreshadowing 1980; for the Harvest is the end. He must have meant the end in Judea, even as He Said, "Then let them which be in Judea flee into the mountains." (Matt 24:16.) See also Matt 2:22; 3:5}
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Mark 1:5; Luke 1:5, 65; 3:1; 7:17; Acts 11:29; Rom. 15:31, and especially John 7:1-3 and 1 Thes. 2:14-16.
The data presented in comments on Rev. 2:1 prove that the conquest of Judea was not completed until the day of the Passover, A. D. 73, and in the light of the foregoing Scriptures, suggest that the Spring of 1918 will bring upon Christendom a spasm of anguish greater even than that experienced in the Fall of 1914. Reexamine the table of the Parallel Dispensations in STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES, Vol. 2, pages 246 and 247; change the 37 to 40, 70 to 73 and 1914 to 1918, and we believe it is correct and will be fulfilled "with great power and glory." See p. 594-5. It was entirely impossible to foresee whether oar Lord meant that A. D. 70 or A. D. 73 should serve as our guide to the time when the Jewish polity came to an end, until after October, 1915, had passed. Moreover, we have seen the promised signs, "upon the earth distress of nations, with perplexity; men's hearts failing them for fear, and for looking after those things which are coming on the earth," and we have the Lord's words for it that having seen those things "the Kingdom of God is nigh at hand," "even at the doors," and our "redemption draweth nigh." (Luke 21:25-36; Mark 13:27-30.) It is possible that A. D. 1980 marks the regathering of all of Fleshly Israel from their captivity in death. It is just 70 years beyond 1910, the date when Pastor Russell gave his great witness to the Jewish people in the New York Hippodrome. See page 551 (1).
But if the time of nominal Zion's travail (Isa. 66:8) is due to occur in the Spring of 1918, and if we are now but the "one day" (one year) distant from that event which the Prophet mentions, what should be our expectation regarding the experience of the "little flock" meantime? "The symbolic travail, in the above prophecy, is a reference to the great Time of Trouble — the travail that is to come upon the nominal Gospel church, Great 'Babylon,' from which some are to be counted worthy to escape. (Luke 21:36.) This is indicated by the preceding verse, which locates the time of this prophecy as synchronous with that wherein is heard 'a voice of noise [confusion] from the city' [Babylon], and 'a voice [of truth and warning] from the Temple' [the elect Little Flock of consecrated and faithful ones], and 'a voice of Jehovah that rendereth recompense to His enemies' — in the great Time of Trouble. The travail that is coming is to be upon nominal Zion — 'Christendom,' 'Babylon'; and it will be a great and sore affliction — 'a Time of Trouble such as was not since there was a nation,'
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"But the marvelous thing the Prophet here has to record is that a Man-child is to he born out of Zion before this travail comes. The birth of the Body of Christ had its beginning with the inauguration of the first resurrection in 1878, before the trouble on Christendom had begun in 1914. Likewise the birth of the Body will be completed before the end of the trouble on Christendom. This Is a striking reference to the fact, elsewhere clearly taught, that the ripe wheat of the Gospel Church is to be separated from the tares, that they are to be exalted and glorified before the burning, the consuming trouble, shall come upon the latter. This Man-child is, therefore, the Little Flock — the true Zion in God's estimation, the Body of Christ; as it is written, 'There shall come out of Zion [the nominal Gospel Church] the Deliverer [The Christ, Head and Body], and shall turn away ungodliness from Jacob [the Fleshly Israel, or Zion].' (Rom. 11:26.) This is the Man-child that is to bless all the families of the earth. (Gen. 28:14; Gal. 3:16, 29.) The birth of the Man-child is the First Resurrection. Blessed and holy are all they that have part in the First Resurrection. Such are now begotten of God by the Word of Truth, and quickened by the Holy Spirit (Jas. 1:18; Eph. 2:1; Rom. 8:11), and in due time — before the travail — they will be born in the glorious likeness of Christ. The birth of this Man-child began over eighteen hundred years ago with the resurrection of Christ Jesus. There the Head of this Body of Christ came forth; and as surely as the Head has been born, so surely shall the Body come forth. 'Shall I bring to the birth, and not cause to bring forth? saith the Lord: shall I cause to bring forth and shut the womb? saith thy God.' (Isa. 66:9.) Ah, no! 'the Man-child, The Christ complete, the Great Deliverer, shall come forth." — Z.'94-135. "But," says one, "where is the fiery chariot that is to accomplish a cleavage between the Elijah and Elisha classes?" We offer the suggestion that the fiery horses are lurid prophecies; the horsemen are Ezekiel and John, and the chariot is the vehicle in which their Message is brought to the Elijah class. And do the Elijah class take to that vehicle? They do. And why? Because "the sheep follow Him; for they know His voice." (John 10:4.) The separation between the Elijah and Elisha classes will be brought about in a perfectly natural way. And what should we expect such a fiery chariot would do when caught up into the heavens? The answer is prophetic, "The heavens being on fire shall be dissolved;" "And all the host of heaven shall be dissolved, and the heavens shall be rolled together as a
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scroll: and all their host shall fall down." (2 Pet 3:12, 10; Isa. 34:4.) Evidently the circulation of the penny will have something to do with the burning of the tares! — Matt. 13: 40-43; Isa. 21:9.
Forty days after Christ's resurrection His ascension occurred. This confirms the hope of the Church's glorification forty years (a year for a day) after the awakening of the sleeping saints in the Spring of 1878. The seven days before the Deluge may represent seven literal days or seven years, in the midst of which "week of years" the last members of the Messiah pass beyond the veil. The Great Company class may be cut off at its end. If we see the first half of this week distinctly marked, it would lead us to expect three and one-half years more of witnessing by the Great Company class; for it seems to be the Heavenly Father's way to accomplish His work by weeks and half weeks, from the very beginning of creation until now. The covenant with Abraham, 2045 B. C., was half way (2081 years each way) between the fall of Adam, 4127 B. C., and the conversion of Cornelius, A. D. 36. The last observance of a typical jubilee by Israel, 626 B. C., was half way (2500 years each way) between the end of Adam's Day, 3127 B. C., and the beginning of the Times of Restitution, A. D. 1874. The captivity, 606 B. C., marks the beginning of the Times of the Gentiles, half way (2520 years each way) between the end of Adam's 1000-year day, 3127 B. C., and the end of Gentile Times, A. D. 1914. The captivity, 606 B. C., marks a point half way (3520 years each way) between the fall of man, 4127 B. C., and his full restoration to Divine favor, A. D. 2914. Christ's death, A. D. 33, marks a point half way (1845 years each way) between the death of Jacob. 1813 B. C., and the restoration of favor to Israel in 1878 A. D. The death of Christ, A. D. 33, was half way (three and one-half years each way) between His baptism, A. D. 29, and the conversion of Cornelius, A. D. 36.
The awakening of the sleeping saints, A, D. 1878, was just half way (three and one-half years each way) between the beginning of the Times of Restitution in 1874 and the close of the High Calling in 1881. Our proposition is that the glorification of the Little Flock in the Spring of 1918 A. D. will be half way (three and one-half years each way) between the close of the Gentile Times and the close of the Heavenly Way, A. D. 1921. The three days' (three years — 1918-1921) fruitless search for Elijah (2 Kings 2:17-18) is a confirmation of this view. We shall wait to see; but we shall not be indifferent while we wait, lest peradventure another, more zealous, take the
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crown we have. The time is not long: but if we have to go on for fifty years, why should we care? We are the Lord's. Let Him do as He will with His own.
Write. — Pastor Russell was the most prolific writer of Biblical truth that ever lived. — Ezek. 9:2, 3.
These things saith the Amen. — The same word translated "verily" in the Gospels and so often used by our Lord as a solemn prefix to some important announcement.
AND the faithful and true Witness. — Trinitarians witness that Christ and the Father are one in person. Christ Himself witnesses, "It is also written in your Law that the testimony of two men is true. I am one that bear witness of Myself, and the Father that sent Me beareth witness of Me." (John 8:17, 18.) Christ was one, and the Father was one; and one plus one are two. (This lesson in mathematics is for Doctors of Divinity; school children will not need it.) — Rev. 1:5; 19:11.
AND the Beginning of the [creation] CHURCH of God.  — Either reading is correct Our Lord was the Beginning of the New Creation, but, more than that, He was the Beginning of all creation. "He is the Image of the invisible God — First-born of all creation; because by Him were all things created, those in the heavens and those on the earth, visible and invisible — whether thrones, or lordships, or governments, or authorities: all things were created by Him and for Him, and He precedes all things. And in Him all things have been permanently placed. (Col. 1:15-18.) Hear also the word of prophecy concerning the Only-Begotten, not only declaring His coming exaltation as King of earthly kings, but describing Him as already being Jehovah's First-born, saying, 'I will make Him, My First-born, higher than the kings of the earth.' (Psa. 89:27.)" — E 95, 86.
3:15. I know thy works. — The Laodicean Church has much zeal, but not according to knowledge. She claims that her principal object is to convert sinners, to bring forth spiritual children. The Prophet puts these words into the mouth of nominal Christians when they awake to a knowledge of the situation: 'We have been with child, we have been in pain, we have as it were brought forth wind; we have not wrought any deliverance in the earth; neither have the inhabitants of the earth fallen (become converted).' (Isa, 26:16-18.)" (Z.'16-347.) The literal city of Laodicea was distinguished for the raven blackness of the fleeces (black sheep) there to be had.
That thou are neither cold. — Making no pretense whatever to be exponents of God's Truth. — Luke 7:36-50. 5
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Nor hot — Full of warm, loving devotion to Christ. — 2 Tim. 3:5; Ezek. 6:6.
I would thou wert cold or hot. — "Ephraim is a cake not turned." — Hos. 7:8.
3:16. So then. — "The Spring of 1878, corresponding to the date at which our Lord assumed the office of King, rode on the ass, cleansed the Temple of its moneychangers, and wept over and gave up to desolation that nominal church or kingdom, marks the date from which the nominal church systems are not the mouth-pieces of God, nor in any degree recognized by Him." — B235.
Because thou art THUS lukewarm and ART neither [cold nor hot] HOT NOR COLD. — "Retaining the forms of worship and faith in a Creator and in a future life, but viewing these chiefly through their own or other men's philosophies and theories, and ignoring the Bible as an Infallible teacher of the Divine purposes. These, while retaining the Bible, disbelieve its narratives, especially that of Eden and the fall. Retaining the name of Jesus, and calling Him the Christ and the Savior, they regard Him merely as an excellent though not infallible Exemplar, and reject entirely His Ransom-sacrifice — His cross. Claiming the Fatherhood of God to extend to sinners, they repudiate both the curse and the Mediator."  — C167.
[I will spue thee out of My] REFRAIN THY mouth. — She is bidden to hold her peace. She needs to study, not to teach; and so the following verses indicate. — Hos. 6:6; 9:12.
3:17. Because thou sayest I am rich. — I have all the spiritual light that exists in the world. "I have much goods laid up for many years." (Luke 12:19.) "I sit a queen, and am no widow, and shall see no sorrow." — Rev. 18:7; Hos. 12:8; 1 Cor. 4:8.
And increased with goods. — "Laodiceans count their numbers and their donations by millions, and say, 'We are rich as never before.' Alas, that they do not realize that these are earthly riches of the kind which our Lord declares are no evidence of His favor during this Gospel Age, but rather to the contrary! And they see not the true riches which the Lord admires, and which are the foretaste of His favor and the coming Kingdom wealth."  — Z.'01-56.
And have need of nothing. — "They will not own that they have departed from the right ways of the Lord: in their own estimation they are rich and increased with goods, spiritual as well as temporal, and have need of nothing." — Mal 3:7; Z.'92-261.
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And knowest not that thou. — Of all others, so the Greek indicates.
Art wretched. — "To our eternal disgrace, the United States leads all civilized countries in homicides — over 8,000 yearly. There are twelve murders in New England to one in London; in California seventy-five to one; in Nevada 245 to one." (Z.'08-83.) "Each nation feels that theirs is the greatest talent, theirs are the finest guns, theirs the best everything; and it is this feeling of self-sufficiency that led the nations into the present conflict. They think that they are so good and so great that God could not help giving them the victory." — Z.'15-174.
And miserable. — "How blind we all have been not to have noticed: (1) That the numbers of the heathen in proportion even to the nominally Christian doubled last century; (2) That if we could bring all the heathen up to the standard of our most civilized nation it would mean that God's will would be less done the world over than it is now." — Z.'08-83.
And poor. — "The Laodicean Church is poor in that she has so little of the Master's Spirit, so little of the Truth and of the Spirit of the Truth." — Z.'01-56.
And blind. — "She cannot see afar off, cannot see either the High Calling of the Church or the blessed provisions of Restitution for the world in general." — Z.'98-128.
And naked. — "The clergy, under the name of Higher Criticism and Evolution, are rapidly denuding her, making her naked, taking from her the robe of Christ's righteousness, and leading her to trust, not in the precious blood of the Redeemer, but in an evolutionary process which needs no Savior, which denies that there is, or has been, any sin to make atonement for." — Z.'01-56.
3:18. I counsel thee. — "Thou shalt guide me with Thy counsel and afterward receive me into glory." — Psa. 73:24.
To buy of Me. — "Not until we lay hold by faith upon the exceeding great and precious promises is there any of the 'gold' of the 'Divine nature' in us. This treasure can be purchased only at the cost of entire consecration, or sacrifice of all that we have, to Christ." — Z.'96-44; Prov. 23:23; Matt 13:44.
Gold tried in the fire. — "If we would purchase the 'gold tried in the fire,' it must be at the cost of faithful and constant submission to the discipline of the Lord in fiery trials. How otherwise can the dross be eliminated? There is no other way. Wherefore, think it not strange; let the fire burn; let the dross be consumed; and see to it, beloved, that in the heat of the flame you remove not the 'living sacrifice.'" — Z.'96-44; 1 Pet. 4:12.
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That thou mayest be rich. — 'For ye know the grace of our Lord Jesus Christ, that, though He was rich, yet for your sakes He became poor, that ye through His poverty might be rich." — 2 Cor. 8:9; Prov. 10:22; Lu. 12:21; 1 Tim. 6:18; Jas. 2:5; Rev. 2:9.
And white raiment. — "The robe of Christ's imputed righteousness, which so many are now discarding, to appear before God in their own unrighteousness." — D42; Rev. 19:8.
That thou mayest be clothed. — "A glorious church, not having spot, or wrinkle, or any such thing." — Eph. 5:27.
And that the shame of thy nakedness do not appear. — "Behold I come as a thief. Blessed is he that watcheth and keepeth his garments, lest he walk naked and they see his shame." — Rev. 16:15; Matt. 22:11-13; Isa. 47:3.
And anoint thine eyes with eyesalve. — From the Great Physician. (Mark 2:17.) "Complete consecration and submission to the Divine will as expressed in the Scriptures." — D42.
That thou mayest see. — "The 'master of the house' or "householder" of the present dispensation is not our Lord, but our Adversary, the Devil — 'the god of this world,' 'the prince of the power of the air,' 'the prince of this world,' who now ruleth in the children of disobedience, blinding the minds of all that believe not." — D611; 2 Cor. 4:4; Eph. 2:2; Psa. 13:3; 19:8; John 9:6, 41.
3:19. As many as I love. — "As many as are honest and at heart loyal to God." — Z.'92-59.
I rebuke and chasten. — '"My son, despise not thou the chastening of the Lord, nor faint when thou art rebuked of Him; for whom the Lord loveth He chasteneth.' — Prov. 3:11, 12; Heb. 12:5-8." — Z.'96-44; Job 5:17; Jas. 1:12.
Be zealous, therefore, and repent. — "The lawyer who makes legality his test instead of justice; the merchant who is satisfied simply to conform to the code of his trade, whose excuse for any dishonesty is, 'They all do it'; the 'gentleman' or 'lady' who puts good form and manners in the place of sincerity and kindliness of heart, and politeness in place of courtesy — all are alike animated by the ecclesiastical conscience. It was this ecclesiastical mind and this ecclesiastical conscience which crucified Jesus Christ. (Rt. Rev. Chas. D. Williams, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Michigan.)" — Z.'15-339. 3:20. Behold, I stand at the door. — Some of the Scriptures, which, when understood in their connections and significance, prove that the Lord's Second Advent occurred in the fall of 1874 are as follows; "Speak ye com-
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fortably to Jerusalem, and cry unto her, that her warfare is accomplished, that her iniquity is pardoned; for she bath received of the Lord's hand double for all her sins." (Isa. 40:2; B227.) "And first I will recompense their Iniquity and their sin double." (Jer. 16:18; B218.) "Turn you to the strong hold, ye prisoners of hope: even today do I declare that I will render double unto thee." (Zech. 8:12; B224.) "The fourteenth day of the second month, at even, they shall keep it." (Num. 9:11; Z.'98-68.) "And when her days to be delivered were fulfilled, behold, there were twins." (Gen. 25:24; Z.'94-63.) "And when he was full forty years old, it came into his heart to visit his brethren. And when forty years were expired, there appeared to him in the wilderness of Mount Sinai an angel Of the Lord." "Wonders and signs in the land of Egypt, and in the Red Sea, and in the Wilderness forty years." — Acts 7:23, 30, 36; Z.'11-215.
"Blessed is he that waiteth, and cometh to the thousand three hundred and five and thirty days." (Dan. 12:12; C83.) "Then shalt thou cause the trumpet of the jubilee to sound on the tenth day of the seventh month, in the day of atonement." (Lev. 25:9; B187.) "As long as she lay desolate she kept sabbath, to fulfil threescore and ten years." (2 Chron. 36:21; B195.) "In that day shall there be an altar to the Lord in the midst of the land of Egypt, and a pillar at the border thereof to the Lord. And it shall be for a sign and for a witness unto the Lord of hosts in the land of Egypt." (Isa. 19:19, 20; C315.) "The like figure whereunto even baptism doth also now save us." (1 Pet. 3:21; Z.'05-181, Diagram.) "In the first year of Cyrus, king of Persia, he made a proclamation." (Ezra 1:1; Z.'05-185.) "This house was finished on the third day of the month Adar, which was in the sixth year of the reign of Darius the king." (Ezra 6:15; Z.'05-185.) "This Ezra went up from Babylon. . . . And he came to Jerusalem in the fifth month, which was in the seventh year of the king." (Ezra 7:6-8; Z.'05-185.) "In the twentieth year of Artaxerxes the king." — Neh. 2:1; Z.'05-185.
Besides the above Scriptures, time-proofs of the Lord's Return, are the fulfilments of the promised signs: The Gospel has been preached in all the world for a witness: (Matt. 24:14; A91); the abomination has been seen in the holy place (Matt. 24:15; D572); the flight of the saints from the antitypical "Judea" has occurred (Matt. 24:16; D573); the great tribulation has commenced (Matt. 24:21; D540); the false Christs are with us (Matt. 24:23; D580); the eagles have gathered to the carcase
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(Matt 24:28; D610); the sun and moon have been darkened (Matt. 24:29; D590); the Man of Sin has been revealed (2 Thes. 2:8; T86; B271); the Elias has come (Mal 4:5; B251); the regathering of the Jews has begun (Jer. 31:8; Z.'06-84); the refining of the sons of Levi progresses (Mal. 3:1-3; Z.'05-378); the true faith was nearly extinct in the earth (Luke 18:8; Z.'06-265); the doctrines of devils are rampant (1 Tim. 4:1; F621); the perilous times and all associated evils are here (2 Tim. 3:1-7; Z.'99-99); the Lord God has given the sinners water of gall to drink (Jer. 8:14; C158); the mighty angel has roared, "Come out of her" (Rev. 18:4; C155); the running to and fro is in evidence (Dan. 12:4; C63); the antitypical Josiah has kept the great Passover (2 Chron. 35:19; Z.'05-180); the land shadowed with wings has played its part (Isa. 18:1; Z.'04-230); the watchman has stood upon his tower (Hab. 2:1; C89); the wheels within wheels are made clear (Ezek. 1:15); the Prophet has come to the rebellious house (Ezek. 2:3); he has eaten the book of her fate (Ezek. 2:9); the seven years of astonishment are finished (Ezek. 3:15); the sieges of 390 years and 40 years are at an end (Ezek. 4:5, 6); the image of Jealousy has been disclosed (Ezek. 8:3); the man with the writer's inkhorn has performed his task (Ezek. 9:2); the removing is at an end (Ezek. 14:21); the sword has been doubled the third time (Ezek. 21:15); the point of the sword has been made bright (Ezek. 21:16); ecclesiasticism has been delivered unto brutish persons (Ezek. 21:31); the desire of the faithful servant's eyes has failed (Ezek. 24:16); the stilled voice is speaking again. — Ezek. 33:22.
The seven thunders have uttered their voices (Rev. 10:3); the seven last plagues have been poured out (Rev. 15:6); the voices of the three signs have been uttered (Exod. 4:3-9; Z.'07-276); the ribband of blue (the Vow) has done its work (Num. 15:38); the tares and wheat have been separated (Matt 13:30; C139); the net has been drawn to the shore and the fish sorted (Matt. 13:48; C214); the ambassadors of peace have wept bitterly (Isa. 33:7); the foolish virgins have had their sound sleep (Matt 25:5; C92); the seven seals have been opened (Rev. 8:1); the seven angels have sounded (Rev. 10:7; B149); the nations are angry (Rev. 11:18); the winepress of God's wrath has been trodden (Rev. 14:20); the horses and chariot of fire have come for Elijah (2 Kings 2:11); the chariots are running like lightning (Nah. 2:4; C272); the mighty angel has flown in the midst of heaven (Rev. 14:6); the false worshippers have been tor-
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mented with fire and brimstone (Rev. 14:10); Behemoth end Leviathan have been beheld doing their work (Job 40:15-23; 41:1-34); the secret of the Lord has been shown (Psa. 25:14; Z.'97-255); the Lord is judging His people and gathering His saints (Psa. 50:4, 6; D75; B164); the lightnings have enlightened the world (Psa. 97:4; A171); the hills have melted like wax (Psa. 97:5; D551); the banner has been lifted on the high mount (Isa 13:2; D40); the tables are full of vomit (Isa. 28:8; Z.'07-91); the dumb dogs have failed to bark (Isa. 56:10; F287); the silver has been cast into the streets (Ezek. 7:19); the nations have all been shaken (Hag. 2:7; D528); the rain, floods and winds have come on Christendom (Matt. 7:27; Z.'06-95); the King has come in to see the guests (Matt. 22:11; C197); the speechless one has been bound hand and foot and cast out (Matt. 22:13; C201); the Master is reckoning with His servants (Matt. 25:19; F419); the seas and the waves are roaring (Luke 21:25; D551); the 144,000 are standing on the sea of glass singing (Rev. 16:3; C237); the Devil has risen up against himself (Mark 3:26; F641); the blood, fire and vapor of smoke are here (Acts 2:19; D592); the brethren are not in darkness and all others are (1 Thes. 5:4; B121); the teachers having itching ears have turned unto fables (2 Tim. 4:3; 4; F287; Z.'07-308); the twenty-four elders have cast their crowns before the throne (Rev. 4:10); the predicted scoffing has taken place (2 Pet. 3:3; B167); the laborers have received their penny (Matt 20:8); and these are but 88 of the proofs hastily collected.
And knock. — "The knock, or proclamation of the Lord's Presence, as indicated by the Old Testament prophecies, has been given since 1875 and is still being given." (Z.'04-124); Lu. 12:36; Cant. 5:2-6. "The knock is to be the evidence of the Presence; and the servants are not to know in advance, but are to know at the time of the arrival and that without seeing." — Z.'04-123.
If any man hear my voice. — Recognize my message.
[And] I WILL BOTH open the door. — When once we give the Lord a welcome to our hearts, how He does open the doors to joys we ne'er before knew!
[I will] AND come in to him. — "If a man love Me, he will keep My words: and My Father will love him, and We will come unto him, and make Our abode with him." — John 14:23.
And will sup. — Take the evening meal. — Lu. 12:37.
With him. — The Master Himself is feasting on the same joys of the Father's Plan that delight our own hearts.
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And he with Me. — "This serving of the servants by the Master should be understood to be an individual work, and not merely a collective service and feast." — Z.'04-124.
3:21. To him that overcometh. — "Let us not avoid the Gethsemane moment if it come to us in the Lord's providence, but let us also with strong cryings and tears look up to Him who is able to save us out of death by the glorious First Resurrection; and let us remember that if we abide in His love, He is able and willing to bring us off conquerors, yea, more than conquerors through His own merit." — Z. '06-348.
Will I grant. — If they prove faithful unto death.
To sit with Me. — 'With the early Church, the promises of Kingdom honor and joint-heirship with the Master were strong incentives to faithfulness under present trials and persecutions, which they had been forewarned to expect."  —A285.
In My Throne. — "God's appointed means of blessing the world and causing the knowledge of the Lord to come to every creature." — A91; 1 Cor. 6:2; 2 Tim. 2:12; Rev. 2:26, 27; 22:1.
Even as I also overcame. — "God sent an angel to comfort and minister unto Him; to assure Him still of the Divine favor, and thus to give Him fresh courage, strength of mind and steadiness of nerve to endure all that was before Him, even unto death. The bitterness of the mental conflict was now over, and the light of Heaven shining into His soul chased away the deep gloom that had hung over Him like a funeral pall." — Z. '06-348.
And am set down with My Father in His Throne. — "The thousand year's of the Millennial Reign will constitute but a beginning of the exercise of the glory, honor and immortality of these New Creatures. At its close when the Kingdom shall be delivered up to 'God, even the Father,' and to mankind as the glorified agents of the Father to rule the earth, a still larger sphere for the exercise of their glory, honor and immortality will open before the New Creation." — F69; 1 Cor. 15: 24-28.
3:22. He that hath an ear. — "Blessed are your eyes, for they see; and your ears, for they hear." — Matt. 13:16.
Let him hear. — "For verily I say unto you, That many Prophets and righteous men have desired to see those things which ye see, and have not seen them; and to hear those things which ye hear, and have not heard them." — Matt. 13:17.
What the Spirit saith unto the churches. — Unto the seven epochs, described in the two preceding chapters.
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