Due to various electronic necessities, insignificant formatting, punctuation, capitalization, etc. and other minor editing has taken place. Spelling has been addressed especially where scanning has caused errors.

Links to the various sections can be found at the bottom of the page.


This posthumous work of Pastor Russell (arranged for use as a textbook) is much condensed, including the extracts from the Pastor's pen, all of which are referred back to his works. The abbreviations used are:

A, B, C, D,E, FThe six preceding volumes of "STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES".
(Citations to E in italic figures refer to old editions, figures in ordinary type to later editions.)
H....................."What Say the Scriptures ABOUT HELL?"
P-D................. "PHOTO-DRAMA OF CREATION" Scenario.
T....................."TABERNACLE SHADOWS."
S....................."SPIRITISM" Pamphlet.
Z......................"ZION'S WATCH TOWER," followed by year and page.

The citations to REVELATION and EZEKIEL refer to the comments herein, as well as to the Bible text.
Other abbreviations used are:

Barnes..........Barnes' "Revelation".
Brit................."Encyclopedia Britannica."
Buck..............Buck's "Theological Dictionary".
Coffin............Coffin's "Story of Liberty".
Cook.............Cook's "Revelation" ; a compendium of the presentations of seventy-two leading commentators on Revelation, in all languages and all ages of the Church.
Edgar............Edgar's "Pyramid Passages". Vol. II.
McC...............McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia.
Mosheim......Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History.
S. B. D...........Smith's Bible Dictionary.
Smith.............Smith's "Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation".
Weym............Weymouth's New Testament in Modern Speech.

Words not in Sinaitic MS. are enclosed in brackets. The Sinaitic MS. is the oldest known copy of the Scriptures, having been written, it is believed, in A. D. 331. The "Authorized" "Version was made from MSS. none of which were older than the tenth century.
Words in Sinaitic MS. which do not appear in "Authorized" Version are printed in capitals.




2:1. [Unto] BY the angel.The special messenger in the Harvest of the Jewish Age was St. Paul. A Hebrew of the Hebrews (Phil. 3:5), he was a free-horn Roman citizen (Acts 22:25-29), highly educated (Acts 22:3), spoke Greek (Acts 21:37) and Hebrew (Acts 22:2), and was presumably a member of the Sanhedrin at the time of St. Stephen's death. (Acts 7:58; 8:1; 26:10.) Chosen before his birth (Gal. 1:15), he was supernaturally inducted into the Body of Christ (Acts 9:1-22) to take the place of Judas (Psa. 109:8; Acts 1:20), was privately instructed in the fullness of the Gospel (Gal. 1:11, 12, 17), was specially commissioned to explain this Gospel to the brethren at Jerusalem (Gal. 2:1, 2), did not hesitate to correct the erring Peter (Gal. 2:11), was acknowledged by St. Peter as filled with Heavenly wisdom (2 Pet. 3:15, 16), wrote over half of the books of the New Testament, carried the Gospel into Europe (Acts 16:9), supported himself with his own hands while he preached (Acts 20: 32-35), and suffered almost unbelievable hardships of every description besides having "the care of all the churches." (2 Cor. 11:24-28.) What a service and honor, here and hereafter, Judas missed by his love of money! St. Paul was beheaded by Nero, A. D. 66.
Of the church [of] IN Ephesus.The first age of the Church began at Pentecost in the spring of A. D. 33, and ended in the spring of A. D. 73. "It may be proper to mention also what things occurred that show the benignity of that all-gracious Providence, that had deferred their destruction for forty years after their crimes against Christ." (Eusebius' Ecclesiastical History.) "On the 15th of Nisan, i. e., of April, in the year 73 A.D., the first day of the Easter festival, the same day on which, according to tradition, the God of Israel had led His people out of Egyptian bondage into freedom, the last bulwark of Israel's liberty had fallen, and Israel was delivered into bondage." (Cornil's History of the People of Israel.) "Masada attained great importance in the war with the Romans. . . With the fall of Masada the war came to an end, on the 15th of Nisan, 73." (The Jewish Encyclopedia.) "The capture of Masada, a Jewish fortress on the southwestern shores of the Dead Sea, put a termination to one of the
fiercest struggles recorded in history (73 A, D.)" — Morrison's Jews Under Roman Rule.
"Judea was not entirely subjugated; for three strong fortresses were still in arms: Herodium, Machaerus, and Masada. . . . The heroes agreed to this proposal (of their leader Eleasar) even with enthusiasm, and on the first day of the great Feast of the Passover (A. D. 73), after slaying their own wives and children, they all perished on their own swords." (Graetz's History of the Jews, Vol. 2.) "Eleasar accordingly persuaded all his people during that night to kill their wives and children and then themselves, but to burn all their treasures first. The next day the Romans found only 960 dead bodies, whilst but two women and five children hid themselves in caverns and were discovered. The Easter of the year 73, just seven years from the beginning of the great movement and 40 years after Christ's crucifixion, saw this end of the whole tragedy." (Ewald's History of Israel, Vol. 7, which is entitled "The Apostolic Age," and which Prof. Ewald makes to end with the year A. D. 73.) Josephus also relates that Masada fell on the 15th of Nisan, April, A. D. 73; but the Quotation is too lengthy to be inserted here.
The meaning of the word Ephesus is "permission," which, understood as "approval," harmonizes well with the tradition that the meaning is "desirable." Anything that has approval is desirable.
Write. — St. Paul wrote a third of the New Testament.
These things saith He that holdeth the seven stars in His right hand. — "In the first chapter we have a description of 'One like unto a son of man.' Some one or more of the features of this description are mentioned in connection with each of the successive stages of the Church." — Z. '16-346; Rev. 1:16, 20.
Who walketh in the midst of the seven golden candlesticks. — "We could not doubt the love and care of our glorified Head even if He had given us no explicit declaration on the subject." (P. 401; Rev. 1:13; Lev. 24:2-4.)
2:2. I know thy works. — The early Christians "took joyfully the spoiling of their goods" (Heb. 10:34); in "great trial of affliction" they abounded in joy, and in "deep poverty" were liberal "beyond their power." (2 Cor. 8:2, 3.) They were living epistles, "known and read of all men." — 2 Cor. 3:2, 3.
And thy labor. — Considered as betrayers of the Jewish faith; living in the midst of heathen idolatry, without railways, steamships, automobiles, bicycles, telegraphs, telephones, printing, postal service, electricity, gas, or kerosene  — in the midst of densest ignorance and basest morals — the
early Christians traversed the seas and lands of the known world, braving floggings, stonings, hunger, thirst, cold, nakedness and martyrdom, that they might tell the good news of the coming Kingdom. — 2 Cor, 11:24-27.
And thy patience. — Hupomonee. "An endurance of wrong or affliction with contentment, without rebellion of will, with full acquiescence in the Divine Wisdom and Love." — Z. '01-115.
And how thou canst not bear them which are evil. — "How much earnestness it produced in you! what an apology! what indignation! what earnest desire! what zeal! what a punishment! In everything you proved yourselves to be pure in this matter." (2 Cor. 7:11, Diaglott.) "Sufficient for such a person is this punishment, which; was inflicted by the majority; so that, on the other hand, you ought to forgive and comfort him, lest such an one should be overwhelmed by excessive sorrow. Wherefore I entreat you publicly to confirm your love towards him." — 2 Cor. 2:6-8, Diaglott.
And thou hast tried. — Made experiment of, Greek implies.
Them which [say they are] CALL THEMSELVES apostles, and are not, and hast found them liars. — "Giving out that himself was some great one," like the clergy of other times, Simon Magus sought "also this power, that on whomsoever I lay hands, he may receive the Holy Spirit," but learned that he had "neither part nor lot in this matter" because his heart was "not right in the sight of God." (Acts 8:9-24.) Also, there were "certain men which came down from Judea" (Acts 15:1, 2), the "false apostles, deceitful workers, transforming themselves into the apostles of Christ" in Corinth. (2 Cor. 11:12-15); "Hymenaeus and Alexander" (1 Tim. 1:20); "Philetus" (2 Tim. 2.17); those who would "pervert the Gospel of Christ" in Galatia (Gal. 1:7); "Phygellus and Hermogenes." — 2 Tim. 1:15; Acts 20:28-30; Rev. 2:6.
2:3. And [hast borne and] hast patience. — Hupomonee, constant, cheerful endurance. And ALL AFFLICTIONS AND HAST BORNE for My name's sake [hast labored], — "And hast suffered on account of My name." (Diaglott.) "As concerning this sect, we know that everywhere it is spoken against." (Acts 28:22.) The natural course is, hatred, slander, then murder. (Matt. 6:21, 22.) It is said that Peter was crucified with bead downward (A. D. 70); Andrew was crucified on a cross decussate (X); James was murdered by Herod (A. D. 44), (Acts 12:2); Bartholomew was first flayed alive and then crucified with his head downward; Matthew died a martyr (supposedly); Thomas was impaled on a spear;
James the son of Alphaeus was thrown down from the Temple and was then stoned, and his brains dashed out with a club; Simon Zelotes was crucified; Paul beheaded.
And hast not fainted. — "Let us not be weary in well doing: for in due time we shall reap, if we faint not." (Gal. 6:9.) "Consider Him that endured such contradiction of sinners against Himself, lest ye be wearied and faint in your minds." — Heb. 12:3.
2:4. Nevertheless I have somewhat against thee. — The Lord's nominal people of the Apostolic Age.
Because thou hast left thy first love. — "I marvel that ye are so soon removed from Him that called you into tho grace of Christ unto another gospel." — Gal. 1:6.
2:5. Remember therefore from whence thou art fallen. — "Call to remembrance the former days, in which, after ye were illuminated, ye endured a great fight of afflictions; partly, whilst ye were made a gazing stock both by reproaches and afflictions; and partly, whilst ye became companions of them that were so used." — Heb. 10:32, 33.
And repent, and do the first works. — "Cast not away therefore your confidence, which hath great recompense of reward." — Heb. 10:35.
Or else I will come unto thee [quickly], and will remove thy candlestick out of his place, except thou repent. — The nominal church was in grave danger of being disowned and rejected. "By far the larger proportion were not consecrated to death, not of the Royal Priesthood, but merely Levites, doing the service of the Sanctuary, but not sacrificing." — T.118.
2:6. But this thou hast, that thou hatest the deeds of the Nicolaitanes. — "Conquerors of the people" — the clergy. — Rev. 2:15.
Which I also hate. — When the Lord's people hate the idea of a class that seeks to be "lords over God's heritage" (1 Pet. 5:2, 3), they hate something that the Lord hates.
2:7. He that hath an ear. — To receive and understand the voice of God through His Word. — Matthew 11:16; 13:9, 43; Rev. 13:9.
Let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. — "If they have persecuted Me, they will also persecute you; if they have kept [observed, "heard"] My saying, they will keep yours also." — John 15:20.
To him that overcometh. — See 1 John 2:13, 14.
Will I give to eat of the tree of life. — "All the trees in Eden were trees of life, and the overcomers of the Gospel Age shall have full liberty to partake of 'the tree of the knowledge of good and evil." — Z.'16-346. Christ is the tree of life here specifically indicated.
Which is in the [midst of the] Paradise of God. — "Paradise, the garden of God, was applicable as a name to the Garden of Eden, in which our first parents resided while they were still in harmony with God, before their disobedience; and the same term is Scripturally applied as a name to the new earth when restitution blessings shall, during our Lord's Second Presence (the Millennium), have brought it to perfection as the fit abode of those who, under Divine favor, shall then prove worthy of life everlasting. It is this same Paradise of the future on this earth that our Lord referred to when addressing the penitent thief, and that is elsewhere referred to as 'the third heaven' — 'new heavens and a new earth." (2 Cor. 12:2, 4; 2 Pet. 3:13.)" — Z. '01-198.
2:8. And [unto] BY the angel. — The mouthpiece of the Lord to the second epoch of the Church was St. John himself. He was the one whom Jesus specially loved (John 13:23; 20:2; 21:7, 20); to him Jesus committed His choicest earthly possession (John 19:26); length of days were implied in the Lord's statement, "If I will that he tarry till I come, what is that to thee?" (John 21:22.) He died at Ephesus at the age of 100, four years after writing the Apocalypse. Polycarp, Ignatius and Papias, his disciples, record that he was a tower of strength to the Church when the Roman Emperors Nero, Domitian and Trajan were endeavoring to destroy the hated sect. When all his capacity to work was gone, and he had no strength even to stand, he used to be carried into the Christian assemblies where he would repeat the exhortation, "Little children, love one another." "The end of the commandment is love" (1 Tim. 1:5); and it is significant that the epoch of the Church especially under St. John's faithful and loving care receive no reproof whatever from the Lord.
Of the church in Smyrna. — Greek, myrrh. The word means "bitter," and, as applied to the history of the church from A. D. 73 to 325, is peculiarly appropriate. This era comprised persecutions under Nero, when Christian women were soaked with tar and burned as torches to light the path of his chariot; under Domitian, in the year 95, when 40,000 suffered martyrdom; under Trajan in the year 100; under Antoninus; under Severus in the year 127, when beautiful and amiable young women were stripped naked before insulting mobs and gored to death by wild cattle; under Maximinus in A. D. 235; under Decius in 250, when all Christians were driven from their estates; under Valerian in 257; under Aurelian in 274; and under Diocletian in A. D. 303.
Write — St. John wrote more of the New Testament than any other except St. Paul.
These things saith the First and the Last. — "In no other sense or way could He be the First and the Last than as the only direct creation of the Father, through whom all else was created. Any other view would be in conflict with the Scriptures. (Rev. 3:14; Col. 1:15; 1 Cor. 8:6; John 1:1-3, Diaglott.)" — Z.'16-346; Rev. 1:11, 17.
Which was dead, and is alive. — This, in itself, must have been a message of comfort and hope to the suffering martyrs. — Rev. 1:18.
2:9. I know thy works, and tribulation, and poverty. — "Some of the most sublime pictures of Christian endurance that the world has ever seen were enacted during the Smyrna period of the Church." — Z. '16-346.
But thou art rich. — "The blessing of the Lord, it maketh rich." — Prov. 10:22; Luke 12:21; 1 Tim. 6:18; James 2:5.
And I know the blasphemy of them which say they are Jews, and are not. — "'They are not all Israel which are of Israel.' (Rom. 9:6, 7.) 'He is not a Jew which is a Jew outwardly, neither is that circumcision which is outward in the flesh; but he Is a Jew which is one inwardly, and circumcision is that of the heart.'" — Z.'99-68.
But are the synagogue of Satan. — "Sold under sin, by our first parent, Adam, his family became 'slaves of sin' through the weakness of heredity. (Rom. 5:12, 21; 6:16-23; 7:14; 8:20, 21.) In this captive condition they have been blinded by the god (ruler) of the present evil world (condition) who puts evil before their minds as good, and darkness for light. (2 Cor. 4:4; Eph. 6:12; Isa. 5:20.) He has general control; first of the masses through ignorance; and secondly, of the more intelligent through pride, selfishness, etc." — E205, 189.
2:10. Fear none of those things which thou shalt suffer.  — Some were covered with the skins of wild beasts and torn in pieces by devouring dogs; some were tortured in red-hot iron chairs; the throats of Christian infants were cut; and edicts were published in all places against the Christians, who were exposed, without protection, to the common rage. — Matt. 10: 22.
Behold, the Devil. — "It is because there are such beasts as lions, bears and leopards, with known characteristics, that governments were likened to them; and so, it is because there is a Devil, with known characteristics, that the fourth empire is likened to him." (A. 259.) The Devil used the Roman empire as an instrument.
Shall cast some of you into prison:' — Restrain your liberties and. opportunities for service.
That ye may be tried. — '"Those who have read the history of this period can understand the depths of these words." — Z. '16-346; Jas. 1:2, 3; 1 Pet. 1:6, 7.
And ye shall have tribulation ten days. — "The ten symbolic days refer to the last and most severe persecution under the Roman Emperors — that of the reign of Diocletian, A. D. 303-313." (Z. '16-346.) "This persecution continued from February 23, A. D. 303, to June 13, A. D. 313. It began in Nicomedia, and became universal. Some were Impaled alive; some had their limbs broken, and were left to expire. Some were roasted by slow fires; some suspended by their feet with their heads downward, and, a fire being placed under them, were suffocated by the smoke. Some had melted lead poured down their throats; the flesh of some was torn off with fingers and toes. Houses filled with Christians were set on fire. Numbers of Christians were tied together and thrown into the sea. Seventeen thousand were slain in one month; and during the continuance of this persecution in Egypt alone 144,000 Christiana died by violence, besides 700,000 that died through the fatigues of banishment or the public works to which they were condemned. Coins were struck, and inscriptions set up recording the fact that Christian superstition was now utterly exterminated." — McC.
Be thou faithful unto death. — "It is required of all consecrators that they shall 'die daily,' and that the end, with us as with our Lord and Head, shall be literal death. As it is written: 'I have said, Ye are gods [elohim — mighty ones], all of you sons of the Highest; yet ye shall die like men, ye shall fall like one of the princes' — not like Prince Adam, convicts; but like Prince Jesus, participators in His death. (Psa, 82:6, 7.)" — F 444.
And I will give thee a Crown of Life. — "The Apostle James speaks of the same crown and calls it the Crown of Life. (Jas. 1:12.) The Apostle Peter speaking of tho same calls it the Crown of Glory. (1 Pet. 5:4.) The thought at the bottom of each of these expressions is the same; namely, the custom in olden times of running races and the giving of a crown to the successful runner at the end of the course. Our reward will be the Crown of Life in the sense that we shall get life on the highest plane, inherent life, immortality. It will be a Crown of Righteousness in the sense that only those who are approved of God as righteous will thus he rewarded and glorified — the righteousness of the Lord fulfilled in us who walk not after the flesh, but after the spirit." — Z. '03-190; Rev. 3:11; 2 Tim. 2:16; Isa, 62:3; Phil. 3:14.
2:11. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches; he that overcometh. — The overcomer of this Gospel Age only.
Shall not be hurt of the Second Death. — His victory is eternal.
2:12. And [to] BY the angel. — The messenger whose testimony was of special value to the Church while the Papacy was rising into power was Arius. He "maintained that the Son of God was totally and essentially distinct from the Father; that He was the first and noblest of those beings whom God had created — the instrument by whose subordinate operation He formed the Universe; and therefore inferior to the Father both in nature and dignity." (Buck.) "The controversy spread like a flame throughout the empire. Accordingly the first ecumenical council was held at Nice, A. D. 325, consisting of 318 bishops, most of whom were from the East. The gist of the question to be settled by the Council of Nice lay in the argument of Arius: 'The Father is a father; the Son is a son; therefore the Father must have existed before the Son; therefore once the Son was not; therefore He was made, like all creatures, of a substance that had not previously existed.' The creed, as finally adopted, condemned the heresy of Arius and fixed the doctrine as it has been held in the church to this day. Of all the bishops only Thomas of Marmarica, and Secundus of Ptolemais, held out against the threat of banishment by the Emperor. Arius was excommunicated and banished, and his books burnt." — McC.
"From the time the Nicene Creed was promulgated and accepted, A. D. 325, there was practically no more Bible study for over twelve centuries. During all that time Bible study was considered unnecessary, because the Apostolic Bishops had formulated the creeds as proper statements of the Church's faith. To study the Bible would have meant the studying of how to fight against the Emperor and the bishops." (Z. '15-253.) "As a result of the failure of these bishops to stand by the Word of the Lord, God's people for centuries have been confessing a Divine trinity, which is incomprehensible; and meantime been neglecting the trinity taught by the Bible, which is more reasonable. If the trinity of the creeds was questioned, hands were lifted in horror, and the questioner was told that the subject was a mystery, which he could not possibly understand, but to doubt which would mean his damnation! The mysterious proposition was sometimes stated to be 3x1 is 1; but others stated
it differently, 1 x 3 is 1. No wonder if some of the more intelligent specimens of our race declared themselves incapable of understanding such mathematics, and too honest to confess and profess what they could not believe!" (B S. M.) The witness of Arius created a profound impression. "The doctrine was carried, in the fifth century, into Africa, under the Vandals; and into Asia, under the Goths. But it sunk almost at once, when the Vandals were driven out of Africa, and the Goths out of Italy, by the arms of Justinian. However, it revived again in Italy, under the protection of the Lombards, in the seventh century, and was not extinguished till about the end of the eighth. Arianism was revived in the West by Servetus, in 1531, for which he suffered death." — Buck.
Of the church in Pergamos. — From Purgos, a tower or citadel. "The name was originally given to a remarkable hill, presenting a conical appearance when viewed from the plain, and strongly fortified by nature and art." (S. B. D.) Concerning the literal city of Pergamos, of which the rising Papacy was the antitype, we read, "The sumptuousness of the princes raised Pergamos to the rank of the first city of Asia as regards splendor. It was a sort of union of a pagan cathedral city, a university town, and a royal residence, embellished during a succession of years by kings who all had a passion for expenditure and ample means of gratifying it."- — McC.
From the witness by Arius in 325 to the witness by the next special messenger of the Church was the long period of 835 years; and during all that time the Papacy was slowly rising, pushing itself higher and higher. "The first ecumenical council of Nice (325), in its sixth canon, makes only an incidental mention of the Roman bishop. The first pope, in the real sense, was Leo I (440-461). The bishops of the African and the Spanish churches submitted to his demands, and he gained an important foothold even in the East. In Gaul, however, he met with a most determined resistance. Gregory I (590-604) saw that the bishops of Rome could not enjoy the ecclesiastical supremacy at which they aimed until they threw off their political dependency. The triumph of the Catholic Church over Arianism in Spain greatly promoted his plans; but he did not as yet actually possess the power of the mediaeval popes. In the seventh and eighth centuries a series of important events gave the popes a high and influential position among the secular governments of the world. The actual power was, however, for several centuries, not commensurate with their claims and aspirations, in 1073, Hildebrand (Gregory VII), after being for
about twenty-five years the guide of the Papal policy, boldly set forth the theory of a theocratic rule of the pope over all the nations of the world. The period from Gregory VII onward is an almost continuous conflict between the popes and the secular governments, during which the former, with an iron firmness, endeavored at first to destroy the direct influence of the princes upon the church, and secondly, to subject all secular governments to the church. This conflict was ended by the Concordat of Worms (1122), by which Emperor Henry V, after the precedence of the governments of England and France, surrendered 'to God, to St. Peter and Paul, and to the Catholic Church, all right of investiture.'" (McC.) The Pergamos ("earthly elevation") era ended in A, D. 1160, as will be shown.
Write. — Arius' writings were destroyed by Constantine.
These things saith He which hath the sharp sword with two edges. — How the sharp sword, God's Word, wielded by Arius before the Emperor and his brother elders at the Nicean Council, must have cut some of them to the heart when they saw the gentle and aged man (Arius was old at the time the controversy arose) banished into the Balkan mountains, one of the most inhospitable places in the world! — Isa. 11:4, 49:2; Hos. 6:5; Eph. 6:17; 2 Thes. 2:8.
2:13. I know [thy works, and] where thou dwellest, even where Satan's seat is. — "During this period, the true Christians were tested and proved by the introduction and development of Pagan and Papal ideas. The Pagan priests, unwilling to lose their positions of honor and influence amongst the people, while nominally professing Christianity, brought their former ideas with them into the Christian Church." (Z.'16-346.) The word seat is rendered throne in Lu. 1:32, and refers to Satan's "hellish parody of the Heavenly Kingdom." — Cook.
And thou holdest fast My name, and hast not denied My faith, [even] in those days wherein Antipas was My faithful martyr. — Throughout all the western part of Europe the Bishop of Rome finally came to be called the papa, or pope, or Father of the church. "Whoever denounced this attempt to disobey the direct command of Jesus (Matt. 23:9), received the promised persecution. (2 Tim. 3:12.) This class in Pergamos is commended by our Lord under the symbol of 'Anti-pas, My faithful martyr.' In Greek, anti- means against, and papas signifies father." — Z.'16-347.
Who was slain among you, where Satan dwelleth. — We can give but a partial list of the popes who served from the condemnation of Arius to the end of the Pergamos epoch; but it will he instructive to those who trust in human ordination and are in sympathy with the efforts of
present-day clergy to get some of the special spirit that is supposed to be imparted by the laying on of hands of these "successors of St. Peter," or those to whom they imparted their "authority." "Saint" Gregory I, pope 590-604 A. D., was the great-great-grandchild of Pope Felix IL When Phocas murdered Emperor Maurice and ascended the throne, Gregory wrote, "The Almighty has chosen you and put you on the throne. Let the heavens rejoice, and let the earth leap for joy." Phocas was not ungrateful and in return established the supremacy of the see of Rome over all the other sees. Gregory was the discoverer of Purgatory, it having been revealed to him by means of "apparitions" and visions. See middle of page 127.
Honorius I, 625-638, has been condemned as having taught a heresy ex cathedra (officially). The interest in this lies In the fact that in 1870 the Vatican Council declared the Infallibility of all the popes in their ex cathedra utterances. But the pope who declared Honorius a heretic did it ex cathedra also. Hundreds of "learned" volumes have been written in the effort to make this pretty snarl clear to the Roman clergy. It is clear enough to others. "Saint" Agathon, 678-682, claimed to be a miracle worker. He was the infallible pope who denounced the doctrines taught by infallible Honorius I. "Saint" Nicholas I, 858-867, "tamed kings and tyrants, and ruled the world like a sovereign; to the wicked and unconverted he was a terror." So says a Catholic historian. John VIII, 872-882, must have seriously offended one of the "brethren" at the Vatican; for that dignitary first tried to poison him, and as the poison did not work quickly enough, he finished the job by breaking John's head with a hammer. Stephen VII, 897-898, was offended because his predecessor had at one time gotten the papal throne away from him. Accordingly, his first act was to cause the body of Pope Formosus to be exhumed, mutilated and thrown into the Tiber. Subsequently one of the "brethren" strangled him.
Christopher, 900-903, boldly deposed his predecessor, Leo V, declaring him unfit to reign, which was doubtless true. Leo died "of grief" in prison less than forty days after he had ascended the throne. He probably had something given him to help his grief along. Christopher himself was murdered by his successor. Sergius III, 904-911, having murdered Christopher, ascended the throne and emulated the kings of earlier days. His concubine Marosia bore him several children. John X, 915-928, and Leo VI, 928-929, were both killed by Marosia, to make room for others In whom she was interested. John XI, 931-936, was the son of Marosia by Pope Sergius III. One of the "brethren"
poisoned him. John XII, 956-964, was murdered while in the act of committing adultery. He was of licentious habits, associating with women of every station, and filling the Lateran with the noisy profanity of a brothel. Among his mistresses was Joan, popularly known in history as Pope Joan. She was a brilliant woman and actually exercised the chief influence at Rome during John's pontificate. Benedict VI, 972-973, was strangled or poisoned by one of the "saints." Boniface VII, 984-985, was elected just after the tumult caused by the death of Benedict VI, but had to leave town to escape a similar fate, on account of licentiousness and cruelty. He remained away eleven years, returned, put Pope John XIV in prison, starved him to death and ascended the throne in his place.
Gregory V, 996-999, was poisoned by one of the "regularly ordained" clergy. Benedict IX, 1033-1045, the boy pope whose parents bought the popedom for him when he was twelve years old, was the worst monster that ever held the papal throne. Some, however, claim that honor for Alexander VI, 1492-1503, who had seven acknowledged bastards and many mistresses. Alexander tried to poison nine cardinals at one sitting so that he could sell their offices for the benefit of his brood; but a stupid servant gave him the wrong glass and he departed this life ahead of time. Benedict's vile conduct caused the Romans to expel him from the city. Silvester III was regularly elected to take his place; hut after three months Benedict came back and resumed control. Shortly afterward he sold the popedom to Gregory VI, so that he might be free to marry an Italian princess. At one time there were three popes living in Rome contemporaneously, and the city was filled with brawls and murders. A fourth, Clement II, was elected, but after he had served nine months, a friend of Gregory put something into his food besides the regular seasoning; and he never awoke again. Thereupon Benedict came back and reigned three years longer.
2:14. But I have a few things [against thee]. — Against the nominal church of the Pergamos epoch.
Because thou hast there them that hold the doctrine of Balaam. — Balaam was a mouthpiece of the Lord, hut Unworthy. He desired to curse God's true people, because of the money there was in it, and finally seduced them by fornication (symbolical of union of church and state). The name Balaam means the same as "Nicolaitanes" (conquerors of the people), and refers to the money-loving, power-loving clergy. We have already noted the efforts to obtain worldly power (spiritual fornication) which characterized the Pergamos epoch. Its history also shows that the
clergy of that time were quite as fond of money as ever Balaam was. John XX, 1024-1033, tried to sell the Roman primacy over the Eastern church for a pecuniary consideration, but failed to make the sale. "Benedict IX, when a boy of twelve years (A. D. 1033), was elected pope 'intercedente thesaurorum pecuniae' "; i. e., his relatives provided the collateral necessary to secure the office for him. Gregory VI, who had had great repute for sanctity as a priest, obtained the papal chair (A. D. 1044) by purchase from Benedict IX, who abdicated to marry a girl of noble family." "At a council at Lyons, the archbishop and forty-five bishops confessed themselves simoniacal" (guilty of buying and Belling church offices). In the reign of Lucien II, 1144-1145, the people, hoping for some relief from an intolerable condition, paraded the streets of Rome with a banner, "Caesar should have the things that are Caesar's and the priest the things that are the priest's." Lucien thought this was a reflection upon himself, and went out in person to put down the "revolution." The people stoned him to death.
Who taught Balac to cast a stumbling-block before the children of Israel. — "Guided by Balaam, King Balac communicated with the leading people of the Midianites, and urged that their wives and daughters should apparently fall in love with the Israelites, and introduce them to the sensuous religious rites practised by Midian. The scheme was successful. Some of the leading wives and daughters of the Midianites attracted some of the leading men of Israel to adultery, and to idol worship and orgies." (Z/13-297; Num. 24:14; 25:1; 31:16; 2 Pet. 2:15; Jude 11; 1 Cor. 10:8.) The words "cast a stumbling-block" are properly rendered, in Rotherham's translation, "throw a snare."
To eat — Appropriate to themselves as truths.
Things sacrificed unto idols. — Doctrines twisted, distorted and mutilated to make them agree with creed-idols.
And to commit fornication. — "Papacy perceived its own great power over the peoples of Europe, all of whom at that time ignorantly and blindly acknowledged the Roman Catholic faith. While the kings of Europe were comparatively weak, the suggestion came, 'Now it must be God's time for setting up the Messianic Kingdom, because now we have the power.' The answer of others was, 'Not so. The Bible teaches that Jesus will set up His own Kingdom at His Second Advent in power and great glory, and that the virgin Church will become His Bride and Joint-heir by the power of the First Resurrection.' The answer to this was, 'So once we thought. But we have waited for the coming of Messiah for over 800 years; and now we have the thought that He probably wishes us to set up His
Kingdom for Him, and in His name to reign over the kings of the earth.'" (Z.'16-53.) "So these Pagan priests taught the Church to indulge in spiritual fornication, and thus brought upon her the withering blight of God's wrath." — Z.'16-346.
2:15. So hast thou also them that hold the doctrine of the Nlcolaitanes, [which thing I hate] IN LIKE MANNER.  — "The 'doctrine of the Nicolaitanes' (conquerors of the people) seems to be the theory of lordship or headship in the Church. (1 Pet. 5:3.) At their councils there was a bitter fight for supremacy. It was settled only by a division of the Church; the Eastern, or Greek Church, accepting the Patriarch of Constantinople for its head; and the Western, or Papal Church, acknowledging the Bishop — Pope or Father — of Rome." (Z.'16-346.) "The sins to which Balaam allured Israel were a type of the sins to which the doctrine of the Nicolaitanes now seduce thee." — Cook.
2:16. Repent; or else I will come unto thee quickly. — Ere you reach the earthly heights to which you aspire.
And will fight against them. — The unfaithful and unrepentant church nominal.
With the sword of My mouth. — With the Scriptures, in the hands of a faithful servant. Such a servant came at that very time, as we shall see. — 2 Thes. 2:8; Heb. 4:12.
2:17. He that hath an ear, let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. — Not many have had the "hearing ear." "There's just one here, one there."
To him that overcometh will I give [to eat] of the hidden manna. — "Manna was the bread which came down from heaven as a life-sustainer for Israel. It represented the living bread, Christ Himself. One peculiarity of the golden pot of manna 'hidden' in the Tabernacle, marking it as the same and yet different from that supplied to the Israelites in general, was that it was incorruptible; hence it well illustrates the immortal, incorruptible condition promised to the Church." — T.122; Ex. 16:33, 34; Heb. 9:4; John 6:49, 50.
And [will give him] a white stone. — "In ancient times the Greeks and the Romans had a custom of noting and perpetuating friendship by means of a white stone. This stone was divided into halves, and each person inscribed his name on the flat surface, after which the parts of the stone were exchanged. The production of either half was sufficient to insure friendly aid. Thus the divided stone became a mark of identification. There is an individual and personal relationship between the Lord and the overcomers, who may be said to receive the mark of identification — the antitypical white stone — now, in this life. This mark is the sealing of the Holy Spirit" — Z. '12-315.
And in the stone a new name written, which no man knoweth saving he that receiveth it — The new name signifies a new relationship to Jehovah. — Gen. 17:5, 15; 32:28.
2:18. And [unto] BY the angel. — The messenger to the fourth epoch of the Church was Peter Waldo. "Peter, an opulent merchant of Lyons, surnamed Valdensis, or Valdisius, from Vaux, or Waldum, a town in the marquisate of Lyons, being extremely zealous for the advancement of true piety and Christian knowledge, employed a certain priest, called Stephanus de Evisa, about the year 1160, in translating, from Latin into French, the four Gospels, with other books of Holy Scripture. But no sooner had he perused these sacred books with a proper degree of attention, than he perceived that the religion which was now taught in the Roman church differed totally from that which was originally inculcated by Christ and His Apostles. Struck with this glaring contradiction between the doctrines of the pontiffs and the truths of the Gospel, and animated with zeal, he abandoned his mercantile vocation, distributed his riches among the poor (whence the Waldenses were called poor men of Lyons, and forming an association with other pious men who had adopted his sentiments and his turn of devotion, he began to assume the quality of a public teacher, and to Instruct the multitude in the doctrines and precepts of Christianity.
"Soon after Peter had assumed the exercise of his ministry, the archbishop of Lyons, and the other rulers of the church in that province, vigorously opposed him. However, their opposition was unsuccessful; for the purity and simplicity of that religion which these good men taught, the spotless innocence that shone forth in their lives and actions, and the noble contempt of riches and honors which was conspicuous in the whole of their conduct and conversation, appeared so engaging to all such as had any sense of true piety, that the number of their followers daily increased. They accordingly formed religious assemblies, first in France, and afterwards in Lombardy; from whence they propagated their sect throughout the other provinces of Europe with incredible rapidity, and with such invincible fortitude that neither fire nor sword, nor the most cruel inventions of merciless persecution, could damp their zeal, or entirely ruin their cause. All they aimed at was to reduce the form of ecclesiastical government, and the manners both of the clergy and the people, to that amiable simplicity and primitive sanctity which characterized the Apostolic ages, and which appear so strongly recommended in the precepts and injunctions of the Divine Author of our holy religion.
"In consequence of this design, they complained that the Roman church had degenerated from its primitive purity and sanctity. They denied the supremacy of the Roman pontiff, and maintained that the rulers and ministers of the Church were obliged, by their vocation, to imitate the poverty of the Apostles and to procure for themselves a subsistence by the work of their hands. They considered every Christian as, in a certain measure, qualified and authorized to instruct, exhort and confirm the brethren in their Christian course. They at the same time affirmed that confession made to priests was by no means necessary, since the humble offender might acknowledge his sins and testify his repentance to any true believer, and might expect from such the counsel and admonition which his case demanded. They maintained that the power of delivering sinners from the guilt and punishment of their offenses belonged to God alone; and that indulgences in consequence were the criminal invention of sordid avarice. They looked upon the prayers and other ceremonies that were instituted in behalf of the dead, as vain, useless, and absurd, and denied the existence of departed souls in an intermediate state of purification. It is also said that several of the Waldenses denied the obligation of infant baptism. They adopted as the model of their moral discipline Christ's sermon on the mount, which they Interpreted and explained in the most rigorous and literal manner; and consequently prohibited and condemned in their society all wars, and suits of law, and all attempts toward the acquisition of wealth."  — Buck.
"Waldo's translation of the four gospels into French was the first appearance of the Scriptures in any modern language. The possession of these books soon discovered to Waldo that the Church was never designed to be dependent on a priesthood, even for the administration of the sacraments; and he became so obnoxious to the church that he was anathematized by the pope. No longer safe in Lyons, Waldo and his friends took refuge in the mountains, and there formed those communities from which the simple doctrines of Christianity flowed out all over Europe. Provence, Languedoc, Flanders, Germany, one after another tasted of the refreshing waters. Waldo traveled in Picardy, teaching his reformation doctrines, hundreds of years before Luther was born. He finally settled in Bohemia, where he died in 1179, the same year in which his tenets were denounced by an ecumenical council. The Waldensian Church was a light on the mountains during the Dark Ages." — McC.
Of the church In Thyatira. — "Thyatira seems to mean 'the sweet perfume of sacrifice.' It was the period of Papal persecution." (Z.'16-347.) From the time of Peter Waldo's witness in 1160 until the next special messenger to the Church appeared, 1378, was a period of 218 years.
Write. — The first translation of the Bible into a modern language — French — was the work of Waldo.
These things saith the Son of God, who hath His eyes like unto a flame of fire. — "To watch over His faithful ones as they wandered through the dark valleys or hid in the darker caves of earth." (Z'16-347; Rev. 1:14.) His eyes search out every secret thought. — Rev. 2:23.
And His feet are like fine brass. — "To walk by their side as they sealed the rugged mountains or wandered footsore and weary, seeking a place to plant the seeds of Truth." (Z.'16-347; Rev. 1:15.) His feet "trample to fragments everything impure." — Cook.
2:19. I know thy works. — The Lord remembers that Peter Waldo was the first to translate His Word into a modern language.
And charity, [and service,] and faith, and [thy] patience, and thy works. — The Lord remembers that Peter Waldo literally "sold all that he had and gave to the [Lord's] poor."
[And] thy last works to be more than the first. — (Diaglott.) "So general and widespread became the so-called heresy that Innocent III determined to crush it out — 'exterminate the whole pestilential race' was the language of which he made use. The commission he gave to the authorities was to burn the chief of the Vaudois (Waldenses), to scatter the heretics themselves, confiscating their property, and consigning to perdition every soul who dared to oppose the pope. Joined with 'His Holiness; in his relentless persecution of the Waldenses was Dominic, the father of the Inquisition. Such has been the history of the Waldenses all through the ages — subject to untold Buffering from persecution; then enjoying, in the quiet valleys of Piedmont, comparative tranquility for a time; then assailed by their ever-relentless foe, the Roman Catholic Church, which has spared no pains, by fire and slaughter, and the horrors of the Inquisition, to put an end to the unfortunate victims of their violence." (McC.) How evident it is that the followers of Peter Waldo have given a larger witness by their sufferings (their "last works") than they did by the first works (the translation of the Gospel into French)!
2:20. Notwithstanding I have [a few things] MUCH against thee. — The fourth epoch of the church nominal
[Because] THAT thou sufferest that woman Jezebel. — The Roman Catholic Church, as shown in parallel below:

"Elijah was persecuted for fidelity to truth and righteousness. "The Church was persecuted for fidelity to truth, and righteousness.

"His principal persecutor was Jezebel, the wicked queen of Israel, who is mentioned by name as the type of the enemy of the saints.  — Rev. 2:20; 2 Kings 9:7. "The principal persecutor was the apostate Church of Rome, which claims to be a 'queen' and ruler over Spiritual Israel. — Rev. 18:7.

"Jezebe1's persecuting power was exercised through her husband, Ahab, the king. — 1 Kings 21:25. "Papacy's persecuting power was exercised through the Roman Empire, to which she was joined.

"Elijah fled from Jezebel and Ahab into the wilderness, to a place prepared of God, where he was miraculously nourished. — 1 Kings 17:5-9. "The true Church fled into the symbolic wilderness  — or condition of isolation — to her place, prepared of God, where she was sustained. — Rev. 12:6. 16.

"Elijah was 'three years and six months' in the wilderness, and during that time there was no rain, and a great famine was in the land. — James 6:17; 1 Kings 17:7; 18:2. "The Church was three and a half symbolic years (a day for a year — 1260 literal years) in the wilderness condition, during which there was a spiritual famine because of the lack of Truth — the living water. — Rev. 12:6; 11:3; Amos 8:11.

"After the three and a half years, 1260 days, when Elijah returned from the wilderness, the errors of Jezebel's priests were manifested, the true God was honored, and copious rains followed. — 1 Kings 18:41-45." "At the end of the 1260 years the power of the Truth and its witnesses was manifested (A. D. 1799); and since then the Truth has flowed at the rate of millions of Bibles every year, refreshing the world and bringing forth fruit" — B 256.

Which [calleth herself] SAITH SHE IS a prophetess — (Claims to be an infallible teacher, but really has no right to teach at all — "I suffer not a woman [a church] to teach.
nor to usurp authority over the man [Christ]." (1 Tim. 2:12; 1 Cor. 14:34; F270.) "False prophecy, fornication and idolatry are symbolized by the woman Jezebel." (Cook.) Jezebel was a prophetess of Baal. — 1 Ki. 16:31-33; 21:25.
[To teach and to seduce] AND TEACHETH AND SEDUCETH My servants to commit fornication. — Union of church and state. — Rev. 2:14; 2 Ki 9:22; 1 Cor. 14:34.
And to eat things sacrificed unto idols. — Reverence the creed-idols set up by the various ecumenical councils. — Rev. 2:14.
2:21. And I gave her space. — Chronos, a "time," 360 years. As noted in comments on 2:20, the prophetic "time, times and a half a time," or three and a half times, or three and a half years, or forty and two months, or 1260 days, represent 1260 years. A single chronos or "time," therefore, represents 360 years.
To repent [of her fornication]. — Of her unfaithfulness to the Lord. During all this time "the virgin Church was enduring the hardships of the wilderness; while the apostate Church sat on the throne of her royal paramour." — Z. '16-347.
And she [repented not] WILL NOT REPENT OF THIS FORNICATION. — The Lord foreknew that after 360 years more of living with the kings of earth, and endeavoring to gain dominion over them, the Roman Catholic Church would be unrepentant. The 360 years from Waldo's message in 1160 ended in 1520. Luther's 95 theses were placed on the church doors at Wittenberg October 31, 1517. "These he proposed not as points fully established, but as subjects of inquiry and disputation. The learned were invited to impugn them, either in person or by writing; and to the whole he subjoined solemn protestations of his high, respect for the apostolic see, and of his implicit submission to his authority. No opponent appeared at the time prefixed; the theses spread over Germany with astonishing rapidity, and were read with the greatest eagerness." (Buck.) Luther was summoned in July, 1518, to appear at Rome within sixty days. He wrote a submissive letter to the pope, requesting a trial in Germany. Meantime the German Emperor died; and the pope, absorbed in the choice of a new emperor, paid little heed to the Luther controversy.
"From the reason just now given, a suspension of proceeding against Luther took place for eighteen months, though perpetual negotiations were carried on. The manner in which, these were conducted having given our reformer many opportunities of observing the corruption of
the court of Rome, Its obstinacy in adhering to established errors, and its indifference about truth, he began in 1520 to utter some doubts with regard to the Divine origin of the papal authority, which he publicly disputed with Eccius, one of his most learned and formidable antagonists. The papal authority being once suspected, Luther proceeded to push on his inquiries and attacks from one doctrine to another, till at last he began to shake the foundations on which, the wealth and power of the church were established. Leo then began to perceive that there were no hopes of reclaiming such an incorrigible heretic, and therefore prepared to pronounce the sentence of excommunication against him. The college of cardinals was often assembled, in order to prepare the sentence with due deliberation; and the ablest canonists were consulted how it might be expressed with unexceptionable formality. At last it was issued, on the 15th of June, 1520. Forty-one propositions, extracted out of Luther's works, were therein condemned as heretical, scandalous, and offensive to pious ears; all persons were forbidden to read his writings, upon pain of excommunication; such as had any of them in their custody were commanded to commit them to the flames; he himself, if he did not within sixty days publicly recant his errors, and burn his books, was pronounced an obstinate heretic, excommunicated, and delivered to Satan for the destruction of the flesh; and all secular princes were required, under pain of incurring the same censure, to seize his person, that he might be punished as his crimes deserved." (Buck.) With the excommunication of Luther, "the fat was in the fire"; and it was useless for the Roman Catholic Church to try to stem the tide of the Reformation. Her period for repentance ended with the "chronos," 360 years, June 15, 1520. — See 3d paragraph, page 41.
2:22. Behold, I will cast her into a bed. — Not a bed of ease, but a bed of pain. See Diaglott. There where she sinned she shall suffer.
And them that commit adultery with her. — All the powers that receive her legates or that maintain representatives at the Vatican. Knowing her character, they are equally guilty.
Into great tribulation. — They are getting some now, and will get more soon.
Except they repent of [their] HER deeds. — This teaches that the present situation in Europe is the direct result of the teachings of the Roman Catholic Church.
2:23. And I will kill her children. — "Both Romanists and Protestants now freely own the relationship of mother
and daughters, the former continually styling herself the Holy Mother Church, and the latter, with pleased complacency, endorsing the idea." — D28; Isa. 67:3, 4. See p. 111.
With death. — "They shall be as though they had not been." — Obad. 16.
And all the churches shall know. — When their secrets are laid bare by the unfolding of the deep things of God's Word.
That I am He which searcheth the reins and hearts. — In olden times the mind was supposed to be located in the reins (kidneys); and the prophecy assumes the same position. Thus David says, "My reins also instruct me in the night seasons"; "In the night his song shall be with me." (Psa. 16:7; 42:8.) "My reins within me are consumed with earnest desire for that day." (Job 19:27, margin.) The metaphor is appropriate to the theme. — Psa. 7:9; Jer. 11:20; 17:10; 20:12.
And I will give unto every one of you according to your works. — The light of Truth blazes most fiercely against the ecclesiastical organizations whose offenses have been greatest. As for the Papacy, "her sins have reached unto heaven, and God hath remembered her iniquities." — Rev. 18:5, 6; Matt 7:16, 20.
2:24. But unto you I say [and unto] the rest in Thyatira. — Waldenses and others outside of the Papal system.
As many as have not this doctrine. — Spiritual fornication, mixture of church and state, the special subject of the message to Thyatira.
[And] which have not known. — Comprehended, realized, entered into.
The depths of Satan. — Rome, pagan and papal.
As they speak. — "So to say," i. e., "Satan" is a name applicable to Rome, as describing its characteristics. — Rev. 2:10.
I will put upon you none other burden. — The Lord only requires of His people obedience to the light due. — 1 John 1:7.
2:25. But that which ye have already. — The truths described in 2:18.
Hold fast till I come. — Some of the light which shone upon the Waldensians has never been entirely extinguished.
2:26. And he that overcometh. — Effectually resists efforts to entice him into disloyalty to the Lord.
And keepeth My works unto the end. — Continues in the faith (John 6:29; 1 John 3:23), despite the unions of church and state. Christ's works are opposite to Jezebel's.  —Rev.2:22.
To him will I give THE power [over] OF the nations. — How like our God! The sacrificed Christ gets the very prize for which Satan aspired. — Isa. 14:13, 14; 1 Cor. 6:2, 3; Rev. 3:21; 6:10; Psa. 149:5-9.
2:27. And he shall rule them with a rod of iron. — "God's Kingdom will not be established by a vote of the people, nor by the vote of the aristocracy and rulers. He 'whose right it is,' He who bought it with. His own precious blood, will 'take the Kingdom,' will 'take unto Himself His great power and reign.'" (D518). "The nations will be ruled by irresistible force — 'every knee shall bow, every tongue shall confess" — and obedience will be compulsory." (D636.) "In His day the humble and righteous, and they only, shall flourish. (Isa. 28:17; Rom. 14:11; Psa. 92:12, 13." — C 369.) "The only liberty that will be granted to any will be the true and glorious liberty of the sons of God — liberty to do good to themselves and others in any and in every way; but nothing will be allowed to Injure or destroy in all that Holy Kingdom. (Isa. 11:9; Rom. 8:21.) Because of its firmness and vigor, it is symbolically called an iron rule." — A 302; Rev. 19:15.
As the vessels of a potter shall they be broken to shivers. — '"The stone cut out of the mountain without hands, which smites and scatters the Gentile powers, represents the true Church, the Kingdom of God. Not the people, but the governments, are symbolized by the image, and these are to be destroyed that the people may be delivered. Our Lord Jesus came not to destroy men's lives, but to save them. (John 3:17.) The stone does not become the mountain until it has smitten the image; and so the Church, in the full sense, will become the Kingdom when 'the day of the Lord,' the 'day of wrath upon the nations,' will be over." (A 255.) "This smiting and breaking properly belongs to the Day of Vengeance, and though, the power and rod will still remain throughout the Millennial Age, their use will probably be unnecessary." — D 637; Psa. 2:9; Dan. 7:22.
Even as I received of My Father. — The Father (Justice) decrees their unworthiness to continue longer. Their iniquity is come to the full. Four hundred years from Luther's time are just now ending. — Rev. 2:21; Gen. 15:13-16.
2:28. And I will give him the Morning Star. — "I am the bright and morning star." — Rev. 22:16; Matt. 13:43.
2:29. He that hath an ear. —An ear attuned to the Harp Divine.
Let him hear what the Spirit saith unto the churches. — Not many are able to appreciate the sweet old "song of Moses and the Lamb" when they hear it. — Rev. 15:3.
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