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The Revelation



This posthumous work of Pastor Russell (arranged for use as a textbook) is much condensed, including the extracts from the Pastor's pen, all of which are referred back to his works. The abbreviations used are:

A, B, C, D,E, FThe six preceding volumes of "STUDIES IN THE SCRIPTURES".
(Citations to E in italic figures refer to old editions, figures in ordinary type to later editions.)
H....................."What Say the Scriptures ABOUT HELL?"
P-D................. "PHOTO-DRAMA OF CREATION" Scenario.
T....................."TABERNACLE SHADOWS."
S....................."SPIRITISM" Pamphlet.
Z......................"ZION'S WATCH TOWER," followed by year and page.

The citations to REVELATION and EZEKIEL refer to the comments herein, as well as to the Bible text.
Other abbreviations used are:

Barnes..........Barnes' "Revelation".
Brit................."Encyclopedia Britannica."
Buck..............Buck's "Theological Dictionary".
Coffin............Coffin's "Story of Liberty".
Cook.............Cook's "Revelation" ; a compendium of the presentations of seventy-two leading commentators on Revelation, in all languages and all ages of the Church.
Edgar............Edgar's "Pyramid Passages". Vol. II.
McC...............McClintock and Strong Encyclopedia.
Mosheim......Mosheim's Ecclesiastical History.
S. B. D...........Smith's Bible Dictionary.
Smith.............Smith's "Thoughts on Daniel and Revelation".
Weym............Weymouth's New Testament in Modern Speech.




13:1. And [I] HE stood upon the sand of the sea. — The sea represents the masses not under religious restraint It is this symbolic sea that is to overturn and swallow up all kingdoms of earth in the great Time of Trouble. The proper understanding of the vision is located down at the edge of this sea, near the Time of Trouble.
And I saw a beast. — "This character is very forcibly delineated even in the names applied to it by the inspired writers. Paul calls it 'That Wicked One,' 'The Man of Sin,' 'The Mystery of Iniquity,' 'The Antichrist,' and 'The Son of Perdition;' the Prophet Daniel calls it 'The Abomination that maketh desolate' (Dan. 11:31; 12:11); and our Lord refers to the same character as 'The Abomination of Desolation, spoken of by Daniel the Prophet' (Matt. 24:15). This same character was also prefigured by a little horn, or power, out of a terrible beast that Daniel saw in his prophetic vision, which had eyes, and a mouth that spoke great things, and which prospered and made war with the saints, and prevailed against them. (Dan. 7:8, 21.) John also saw and warned the Church against this character, saying, 'Ye have heard that Antichrist shall come.' He then advises how to escape Antichrist's influence. (1 John 2:18-27.) These various appellations and brief descriptions indicate a base, subtle, hypocritical, deceptive, tyrannical and cruel character, developed in the midst of the Christian Church; claiming, to the last, peculiar sanctity and authority and power from God." (B271.) "We need not look long to find a character fitting all the requirements perfectly. But when we state that the one and only system whose history fits these prophecies is Papacy, let no one misunderstand us to mean that every Roman Catholic is a man of sin. Popes, bishops and others are at most only parts or members of the Antichrist system, even as all of the Royal Priests are only members of the true Christ." (B277.) Antichrist now finds its expression in the "Christian" governments of the world founded upon its teachings — Christendom.
Rise up out of the sea. — See Rev. 17:15; Psa. 65:7; 93:3, 4; Isa. 57:20. At the time of papacy's birth the masses of the Roman people bad ceased to have reverence for the
ancient mythology of Pagan Rome. Constantine, a shrewd politician, discerned this and discerned the growing influence of the Christian religion. In adopting it, in forcing the adoption of the Nicene Creed, and in removing his capital from Rome, he gave the papacy its start.
Having TEN HORNS AND seven heads [and ten horns].  — See Rev. 12:3; Dan. 7:7, 20; Rev. 17:3, 9-12; 5:6; 1 Sam. 2:10; Deut. 33:17; 1 Ki. 22:11.
And upon his horns ten crowns. — In this calculation are included the three potential races plucked up to make way for the papacy. (Rev. 12:3; 17:3, 9.) In this picture the location of the crowns upon the horns instead of upon the heads, as in Rev. 12:3, denotes the changed situation after the papacy came into control. The papacy ruled not directly, as did Pagan Rome, but through other powers to which it was joined.
And upon his heads. — The seven kingdoms that still survive: Spain, Portugal, France, England, Germany, Austria, Greece, and their past and present dependencies.
The name of blasphemy. — Every one of these kingdoms falsely claims, or has claimed, to be a part of the Kingdom of God, though actually all part of the one great kingdom ruled by "The god of this world." — 2 Cor. 4:4.
13:2. And the beast which I saw was like unto a leopard. — "The body of the Papal beast was like a Leopard. The Leopard was the third beast seen by Daniel, viz., Grecia. Greece was noted as the center of learning, piety and wisdom (Acts 17:23); so Papacy's chief claim, to be the ruler of all kingdoms, is based on the claim that it is the center of wisdom, learning and piety. Other peculiarities of the Leopard are its activity, vigilance and secretiveness; so with Papacy. Again, a Leopard is spotted irregularly, so too Papacy's policy in various parts of the earth." (Z.'79-12-2.) "In one place it is liberal, almost white in its professions or appearances; in another quarter black, corrupt, degrading, brutal; and in still other places it has various neutral and tawny shades of correspondence to the natural depravity of the people it rules with its rod of eternal torment and its staff of Purgatory. In Spain, for example, which has been for centuries one of its dark spots — as dark as the general civilization of the people will permit, — the 'leopard' has been accustomed to have its way, and is incensed that freedom of worship, or even of thought, should be dreamed of." — Z.'99-262.
And his feet were as the feet of a bear. — "The bear suggests another of Papacy's peculiarities as an empire, viz., persistency. Like the Bear Empire (Medo-Persia) which would besiege for years, and even turn a river aside to
accomplish its ends; so Papacy moves cautiously and gets possession of kingdoms rather by strategy than by battles. The bear hugs its prey to death with its paws." — Z.'79-12-2.
And his mouth as the mouth of [a lion] LIONS. — "Babylon was celebrated for its splendor and pride — the Lion the king or ruler of all beasts — so Papacy had a mouth of this sort, i. e., it claimed to be the kingdom over all kingdoms by Divine right, the kingdom of God, which was to break in pieces and consume all others — a strong mouth." — Z.'79-12-2.
And the dragon. — Imperial Rome, represented by Constantine.
Gave him his power. — "Ancient Pagan Rome had only a mere skeleton of sacerdotal power as compared with the complex and elaborate machinery and contrivances of doctrine and practice of Papal Rome, the triumphant successor to their scheme, who now, after centuries of cunning and skill, has its power so intrenched that even today, when its power is outwardly broken and it is shorn of civil dominion, it rules the world and controls kingdoms secretly, under cover, more thoroughly than the Roman emperors ever ruled the kings subordinate to them." — B288.
And his seat. — His place in the city of Rome, by transferring his own headquarters to Byzantium, "New Rome." — Rev. 12:4.
And great authority. — At the hands of the Roman Emperor Justinian, in A. D. 539. — Rev. 12:3-5.
13:3. And I saw one of his heads. — One of the dragon's heads — Papacy.
As it were wounded to death. — Whenever the Scriptures use the expression "as it were" (as in Rev. 9:7, 9) what seems or appears is not actually the case.
And his deadly wound was healed. — "At the Diet of Augsburg, in 1555, the Religious peace was concluded. Every prince was to be allowed to choose between the Catholic religion and the Augsburg Confession [of the Reformers]; and the religion of the prince was to be that Of the land over which he reigned: that is, each government was to choose the creed for its subjects.
"In fact, the political circumstances of the time, combined with the fact that even the leaders of the reform were only beginning to get awake to some of the moral and a few of the doctrinal errors of Papacy, lead us to wonder at the rapid strides taken toward the right, rather than to harshly condemn them for not making the cleansing more thorough. But when the Protestant churches
united with the state, progress and reform came to a standstill. Soon creeds were formed which were almost as unyielding and opposed to growth in knowledge as the decrees of Rome." — C111.
And all the [world] EARTH wondered after the beast. — The reference is to the symbolic earth, the people, obedient to the ruling powers. — Rev. 17:8.
13:4. And they worshipped the dragon. — "Dragon means civil power, Pagan Rome." — Z.'79-12-2.
[Which] BECAUSE HE gave THE power unto the beast. — "The people respected the civil power all the more because it had so honored ecclesiastical authority. The various kingdoms (horns) soon learned that their hold over the people was strengthened rather than weakened by allegiance to Papacy, for Papacy in turn recognized them, and commanded the people to recognize those despots as of divine appointment. Thus it is, that to this day, the rulers of Europe claim to rule by Divine right and appointment, and their children after them, no matter how incompetent For the same reason the Protestant churches Of Europe, to gain national favor, protection and assistance, became State churches, and they, as Papacy did, recognize the reigning families as possessed of Divine title to the office and rulership of the people. God's Word, on the contrary, denounces all the governments of earth as beastly, selfish, oppressive, and recognizes only one Kingdom as being of God's appointment, viz., the Kingdom soon to be established in all the earth — Christ and His saints in glory. (Dan. 7:27; Rev. 11:15; 2 Tim. 2:12.) It is in that Kingdom only that the saints have their citizenship, it alone they recognize, and for it pray "Thy Kingdom come.'" — Z.'80-l-l.
And they worshipped the beast. — 'The following, called The Adoration, is still a part of the ceremony connected with the installation of a new pope: 'The pope is lifted up by the cardinals and placed by them upon the altar-throne. One of the bishops kneels, and the singing of Te Deum [We praise thee, O God] begins. Meantime the cardinals kiss the feet and hands and face of the pope.' A coin representing this ceremony, struck in the Papal mint, bears the words, 'Whom they create, they adore.'" — B316.
Saying, Who is like unto the beast. — What other character in history ever made such claims or received such homage? — Rev. 18:18.
AND who is able to make war with him. — "When, in A. D. 455, the city of Rome was invaded and plundered by the Vandals, and all around was distress and desola-
tion, Leo, the bishop of Rome, improved the opportunity for impressing upon all, both barbarians and Romans, his claim of spiritual power. To the rude and superstitious barbarians, already greatly impressed by what they saw about them, of Rome's greatness and wealth, Leo, arrayed in his pontifical robes, exclaimed: 'Beware! I am the successor of St. Peter, to whom God has given the keys of the Kingdom of Heaven and against whose church the gates of hell cannot prevail; I am the living representative of divine power on the earth; I am Caesar, a Christian Caesar, ruling in love, to whom all Christians owe allegiance; I hold in my hands the curses of hell and the benedictions of Heaven; I absolve all subjects from allegiance to kings; I give and take away, by divine right, all thrones and principalities of Christendom. Beware how you desecrate the patrimony given me by your invisible king; yea, bow down your necks to me and pray that the anger of God may be averted.'" — B295.
13:5. And there was given unto him a mouth. — The mouth of Antichrist is one of its leading characteristics. — B305; Dan. 7:8, 11, 25.
Speaking great things and blasphemies. — "How evident it must be to the simplest minds that Papacy's great swelling words and boastful claims have, one and all, been blasphemies. The establishment of a counterfeit Kingdom of God was a libel upon God's government, a gross blasphemy, and a misrepresentation of His character and Plan and Word. God's character, i. e., His 'name,' was blasphemed in the thousand monstrous edicts, bulls and decretals issued in His name, by the long line of those who claimed, as vice-gerents, to represent His Son by the titles, appropriate only to the Father or to Christ, which they have applied to themselves; and God's Tabernacle, the true Church, was blasphemed by the false system which claimed to take its place." — B306; Dan. 7:8, 20, 25.
And [power] IT was given unto him to [continue] DO WHAT HE WILL. — He still continues, though he can no longer do what he will.
Forty and two months. — 1260 days, or a time, times and a half; fulfilled in 1260 literal years from A. D. 539 to 1799 A. D. (Rev. 11:2.) Some students of prophecy expect to see the end of the rule of the Kaiser and others of his mouthpieces in 42 literal months from Aug. 1, 1914. But what folly it would be to try to see in the German Kaiser. or any other one man, the foretold Antichrist. — Rev. 11:11.
13:6. And he opened his mouth in [blasphemy] BLASPHEMIES against God. — Misrepresentations of the Divine Character and Plan.
To blaspheme [His name] HIM. — God was blasphemed, or misrepresented by the titles used by the popes, by their claims to the exercise of Divine power on earth (BS11), by claims that the Pope is God on earth (B314), by claims that he is the sole judge of right and wrong (B317), by claims that he is infallible (B318), by proscribing the Bible (B319), by the doctrines of eternal torture and purgatory (B323), by masses for the dead and the sale of indulgences (B324), and by devilish practices against His saints, too numerous to name.
And His tabernacle. — The church in the wilderness. — Rev. 12:6, 14.
[And] Them that dwell in heaven. — God's Tabernacle is His true Church in the flesh, but, nevertheless, "Our citizenship is in Heaven." (Phil. 3:20, R. V.) Even here we have been made to "Sit together in heavenly places in Christ Jesus." — Eph. 2:6.
13:7. And it was given unto him to make war with the saints. — See Rev. 2:20; Acts 9:32; Rom. 15:25; 1 Cor. 6:1.
And to overcome them. — See Rev. 6:8; Dan. 7:21, 22.
And power was given him over all kindreds, AND PEOPLES, and tongues, and nations. — This has been literally fulfilled, but will have a secondary fulfilment soon, through the beastly governments that are Papacy's living representatives in spirit if not in fact. — Rev. 17:15.
13:8. And all that dwell upon the earth shall worship him. — Yield either willing or forced obedience to his mandates; bow the knee in submission.
Whose names are not written in the Book of Life. — "The deception of Papacy was so complete that the world was deceived, and all the church, except the overcomers, whose names were 'written in Heaven,' were deceived in the same way, and hastened to unite themselves with, and to worship the Beast, and have it enroll their names on its books. From this has sprung the delusion so common to all Protestants at this day, viz., that their names must be connected with some such earthly system, or they are not the Lord's saints. But the important item is, to have our names recorded in the Lamb's Book of Life; His is the only record of any value." — Z.'80:l-l; Psa. 69:28; Dan. 12:1; Lu. 10:20; Phil. 4:3; Rev. 3:5; 21:27.
Of the Lamb slain from the foundation of the world. — "This selection of the Only Begotten to be the Head and Chief of the New Creation — subject to the trials, disciplines, humiliations and other necessary experiences to prove His worthiness — had already been determined upon in the Divine counsel before man was created." — F65; 1 Pet 1:20; Eph. 1:4; Rev. 5:6; John 1:29, 36; Acts 8:32.
13:9. If any man have an ear, let him hear. — "Only those whose ears have been circumcised — those who had come to a considerable knowledge of God's Word and who had the hearing of faith — to respect Him and His Word, despite the magnificence, success and power of error, would be able to receive the foregoing statements concerning those who were deceived by Papacy." — Z.'80-l-l.
13:10. [He that] IF ANY ONE leadeth into captivity [shall go] HE GOETH into captivity. — "The Papal system was one of bondage. All who acknowledge its claims must of necessity render implicit obedience, as unto God; for it claimed to be the kingdom of heaven; and its head, the Pope, to be God's vice-gerent; consequently those who were for, or in favor of such captivity of individual thought, and who would acknowledge the right of that Papal system to limit and define the faith of all, by consenting, became captives." — Z.'80-l-2.
He that killeth with the sword must be killed by the sword. — "There were some who asserted that Papacy was a usurpation of the titles and power of the true Head and Ruler of the Church, and claimed their rights to the individual liberty wherewith Christ had made them free. Such used the 'Sword of the Spirit,' which is the Word of God, in defense of their liberty, and such were put to death by Papacy; it overcame the saints during its 1260 years of power." — Z.'80-l-2.
Here is the patience and the faith of the saints. — "This was a severe test of true saintship — Would they go into captivity and join in the usurper's ranks, or would they remain faithful to the true King and wait for the Kingdom which He promised to establish? Those whose names were written in Heaven stuck to the Word, and sealed their testimonies by death." (Z.'80-l-2.) The same situation now confronts the saints, in the matter of aiding in some way the murderous spirit of the governments which are permeated by Antichrist's spirit. — Rev. 14:12.
13:11. And I beheld another beast. — "If the preceding wild beast represented an ecclesiastical power, as we have just seen, then this beast called another should be understood to represent a similar ecclesiastical or church power. As the first beast had ten horns, or powers, which gave it their strength, so this beast has 'two horns' which indicates that two powers or governments will support it. Again, notice that this beast 'ascended (came gradually) out of the earth,' while the first came out of the sea. Now, if our definitions be correct — as the coming of Papacy from among the irreligious masses of the Roman Empire was shown by its coming out of the 'sea' — then
the coming of this second beast out of the 'earth' should signify that it sprung up among a professedly religious people. The Two-horned Beast is one ecclesiastical system, and the two horns show that it is supported, and its authority recognized by two kingdoms. Remember that to be simply aided or supported by the empire does not make a symbolic 'Beast'; a 'Beast' is a government, and to become a symbolic beast, a church must needs become an element in, or part of the government.
"There is but one church which this symbol fits perfectly, viz.: The established 'Church of England and Ireland.' This system, like the Papal, was a blending of church and state, an ecclesiastical empire. In the year 1200 England became subject to the Pope. In 1531, owing to a dispute between her king, Henry VIII, and the Pope, England withdrew from allegiance to Papacy. The Convocation of its clergy called the same year, in its decrees, declared King Henry VIII to be 'The one protector of the English Church, its only and Supreme Lord; and as far as might be, by the law of Christ, its Supreme Head.' Those are the exact sentiments of Papacy; that is exactly the sense in which the Pope is recognized as Christ's vicegerent "What a glorious representation of the Lord Jesus they had in Henry VIII, who, out of six wives, was divorced from two, beheaded two, and by many is supposed to have poisoned one! He was a worthy rival of some of the Popes as an Anti-christian claimant of headship to the church. The Clerical Convocation which could acknowledge such a head was not far from being as corrupt as Papacy.
"The proof that the title, 'head of the church,' was not an empty honor, appears from the historian's words — 'At the same time it was ordained that no regard should be paid to censures which the Pope might pass on account of this law and that Mass should be said, and sacraments administered as usual. In 1534, all payments made to the apostolic chamber, and dispensations, were abolished; monasteries were subjected to royal government, and exempted from all other; the right to summon Convocations, approve or reject canons (laws or doctrines enacted by the Convocation of clergy), and hear appeals from the Bishops, was vested in the King alone. These matters are but imperfectly understood by people in general, and the same titles — 'Supreme head of the church on earth,' etc., are still applied to English sovereigns. It is needless to remark that the Lord Jesus never gave this office to any one, but claims it Himself; and any others who claim it are usurpers. Paul said: 'Christ is the Head of the
Church,' and that we are to 'grow up into Him in all things, which is the Head, even Christ.' Again he repeats that 'God gave Him to be the Head over all things in the Church, which is His body.' (Eph. 1:22 and 4:15, and 5:23; Col. 1:18.) It is the church on earth that Paul is speaking of, hence any Pope, Queen, Council, Assembly, Conference, or any other man or company of men, who claim or exercise the powers of the true Head — Jesus — are opposing Him. And all who support such by influence, presence or money, are abettors of evil and supporters of false systems. Now does this system (the English church) fill the picture? The second Beast had two horns; what two kingdoms (horns) supported this church? Bear in mind the distinction between a church supported by a government, as the Presbyterian in Scotland, and a church united in the government, as in England; it is the latter relationship that constitutes a 'beast.'" — Z.'80-l-2; Rev. 13:14,15; 14:9, 11; 15:2; 16:2, 13.
Coming up out of the earth. — "From the visible church of God." — Cook.
And he had two horns like a lamb. — "Now about the two horns. England, of course, was one of them, and Ireland the other. Let us see. History says that in 1537 the Irish Parliament in Dublin 'passed the Act of Supremacy, declaring Henry VIII Supreme Head of the Church, prohibiting intercourse with the court of Rome, and making it treason to refuse the oath of supremacy.' 'Henry VIII also took the title of King of Ireland.' Thus it is seen that the second horn came up within the brief space of five years after the first. The fact that Ireland was not a powerful horn matters not, for it was stronger than some that supported the Papal Beast What effects result from the disestablishment of the Church in Ireland? From 1538 to 1871 (333 years), the title of the church was The Church of England and Ireland,' thus recognizing both 'horns.' On January 1, 1871 (by action of Parliament and the consent of the Queen, the head of the church) the Irish church was disestablished, or that horn was cast off. So, too, all of the horns which once supported Papacy have broken off from her; the difference being that in the case of Papacy the horns have turned against her, and in the case of the second Beast it casts off the Irish horn of itself, believing it to be a weakness rather than a strength. And it would not be at all remarkable if the other horn (England) would be separated from this Beast. 'The two horns like a lamb,' would seem to indicate that this Beast would be peaceably inclined — not aggressive. but merely using the horns for defense." — Z.'80-l-2.
And he spake as a dragon. — "'He spake like a dragon.' Notice, it is not said he spake like the dragon, but like a dragon. We understand this to mean that its utterances resembled those of a purely civil (dragon) power, and that in its words there would be little to denote that it is an ecclesiastical government." (Z.'80-l-2.) England's conduct in forcing opium into China is evidence enough of its Satanic character. "China realizes that opium is her great curse; she has passed laws against the growth of the poppy and the manufacture of opium. But she finds that the imports of opium amount to 5,000,000 pounds per year. She cries out again, as in the past, that this Great Kingdom of Christ (?) (Great Britain) will have mercy upon her and cease to insist on this curse being introduced to blight China morally and physically. The young men of heathen China have started a monster petition for the cessation of opium importation. The text of this appeal appeared in the New York Herald, February 17. It recounts that a previous appeal, of similar character, was made without avail to the King's royal grandmother in 1858, when she was the representative of this branch of Christ's Kingdom (?)." (Z.'11-115.) "The False Prophet who causes the dwellers on earth to worship the Beast symbolizes the deification of the world and of the world power, throughout the conflict between the church and Antichrist." — Cook.
13:12. And he exerciseth all the power of the first beast before him. — "And the authority of the first Wild Beast — the whole of that authority — he exercises in his presence, and he causes the earth and its inhabitants to worship the first Wild Beast." (Weym.) "This shows that the second does not take the place of the first beast, but that they exist contemporaneously." (Z.'80-l-2.) It also shows that the sufferings of the last members of the Body of Christ, under the combination of governments dominated by Great Britain, may be expected to be as great as in Papacy's palmiest days.
And causeth the earth and them which dwell therein. — "We make a distinction between the earth and those who dwell on it. As the earth symbolizes those obedient to and supporting the Beast, so 'those dwelling on the earth,' we understand to mean independent Christians who do not support either of these systems." — Z.'80-l-2.
To worship the first beast, whose deadly wound was healed. — "The Church of England claimed all the powers and authority which Papacy claimed. It claimed to be the Church; it acknowledged and repudiated some of the corruptions complained of by the Reformers, such as the
sale of indulgence, transubstantiation, etc., and abandoned these as well as the name Roman, for which they substituted the word Holy, calling it the original 'Holy Catholic Church." It claims the same governmental authority and the same veneration for its decrees as Papacy does for hers. And by establishing a similar system, devoid of some of the grosser Papal errors, it attracted the attention of all to those errors, as being the only possible fault of Papacy. And when some of those errors were shortly after discarded by Papacy, the inference was that both Beast systems were right. People at that day, as now, seemed to think those systems proper and right, if their powers, etc., were properly exercised; but from God's standpoint the systems are abominations, and wrong from the very center. These systems are based upon errors, and like a corrupt tree, 'cannot bring forth good fruit.'
"The principal error was in this — the very basis of those systems — their claim to be the 'Kingdom of God' in reigning power. That idea, once admitted, justifies their persecution of individuals and nations, forcing them to submit and bow in obedience. Scripture accords these powers to the 'Kingdom of God' — when 'the Kingdom is the Lord's and He is the Governor among the nations; all the ends of the world shall remember and turn unto the Lord, and all the kindreds of nations shall worship before Thee.' (Ps. 22:27, 28.) He shall 'dash them in pieces as a potter's vessel.' (Ps. 2:9.) Unto Him every knee shall bow, and every tongue confess. (Phil. 2:11.) 'And if their claim be good, who can object to their carrying out the Scriptural statements? These Antichrists, to make their claim of kingdom power appear true, had simply to take another, viz., to compel obedience, backing up their right to do so by the Scriptures just quoted. And not only was this great evil sanctioned, but their claim, once admitted, that the Kingdom was established and the reign in progress, those who admitted it were hindered from looking for the true Head of the Church to set up the true Kingdom under the whole heavens, which shall break in pieces present imperfect governments, establish righteousness in the earth, and cause every knee to bow and every tongue to confess, to the glory of God." — Z.'80-l-2.
13:13. And he doeth great wonders. — The strongest text of Scripture forewarning against the impending Church Federation is the strongest text of Scripture forewarning against spiritism. (Isa. 8:9-22.) It is not by accident that these warnings are placed together. "We shall not be at all surprised if some later manifestation of the powers of darkness, transformed to appear as the angels of light
and progress, shall be much more specious and delusive than anything yet attempted. We do well to remember the Apostle's words, — 'We wrestle not with flesh and blood, but with princely powers of darkness, with the spiritual things of the Evil One.' (Eph. 6:12.) In 1842, six years before 'modern Spiritism' began to operate, Edward Bickersteth, a servant of God and student of His Word, wrote, — 'Looking at the signs of the times, and the long neglect and unnatural denial of all angelic ministration or spiritual influence, and at the express predictions of false Christs, and false prophets, who shall show signs and wonders, insomuch that if it were possible they should deceive the Very Elect, and that when men receive not the love of the truth that they might be saved, for this cause God shall send them strong delusion, that they shall believe a lie; I cannot but think there is a painful prospect of a sudden recoil and religious revulsion from the present unbelief and misbelief, to an unnatural and undistinguishing credulity." Satan is the inspirer and supporter of every Antichrist; and as he led those who had pleasure in error rather than the truth to the organization of the great Antichrist, Papacy, symbolically the 'beast' of Rev. 13. and as he is now operating to produce a Protestant 'image of the beast' with life, which will cooperate with the chief Antichrist, so in combination with these will be the powers of darkness, the powers of the air, the lying and seducing spirits, operating in some manner or in a variety of ways, — Spiritism, Christian Science, New Thought, Theosophy, Hypnotism, etc." (S32.) "If we gain the right conception of the matter these deceptions are to affect the whole world, including its wise men, and indeed practically everybody." — Z.'09-123; Deut. 13:1-3; Matt 24: 24, 25; 2 Thes. 2:9-12; Rev. 16:14.
Note the readiness of Christendom to fall into the trap: "In a sermon in which he told of the effect of religious seances and the efforts of certain writers to shatter belief in a future life, the Rev. H. D. C. Maclachlan preached to a large congregation in Seventh Street Christian Church on 'The New Spiritualism,' in which he gave scientific proof of a future life and exhorted his hearers to be of good cheer and continue to hope. Mr. Maclachlan spoke in part as follows: There has been no more remarkable change in public opinion than that witnessed within the last few years with regard to that class of facts known as spiritualistic. There was a time when it was not quite respectable to believe in them, but quite recently there has been a change. Ghosts have become respectable; planchette and table rapping are parlor amusements; the
popular magazines vie with each other in saying nice things about mediums and their ways. The cause of this change in public opinion has been a similar change in scientific belief. It is not more than thirty years ago that orthodox science refused so much as to investigate the things of which we are speaking. Some twenty-five years ago the Society for Psychical Research was formed in England with such names as Crookes, Myers, Romanes, Eldgwick, Barrett and others on its list of members, and since that day telepathy, table rapping, clairvoyance, clairaudience, telekinesis, apparitions, materializations, mental healing and all the other phenomena which Professor James, of Harvard, aptly calls residual, have been investigated. Mediums have been transferred from back parlors, where all sorts of trickery was possible, to the physical laboratories of the universities. They have been put under conditions of strictest control. Even the traditional darkness has been denied them. And still the wonderful results came. One after another leading scientists entered into these investigations skeptical and contemptuous, but came out of them believers in the facts on the evidence of their own senses.' " — Z.'09-164.
So that he maketh fire come down from heaven. — Fire from heaven was the test by which Elijah proved that Jehovah is the true God, and was the method by which Jehovah accepted the offerings made to Him on the Day of Atonement. (1 Kings 18:38; Lev. 9:24.) In the test at hand the second beast will be able to prove to all except the Elect that his claims to Divine approval are correct "Our Lord warns us of danger from false Christs 'then' — that is now. Had it been foretold precisely what form these deceptions would take, this would have somewhat hindered their deceptive power. God permits these deceptions for the very purpose of separating the 'overcomers' from all others, and merely guarantees us that the 'Elect* will be kept from falling. And yet it is quite possible that some of these trials, sittings and delusions, may come closest upon those possessing the largest degree of the light of Present Truth." (D581; Rev. 7:3.) "The Lord allows the storms to press us more and more so that we will cry unto Him. Then He will hear us and give us the necessary deliverance. These storms may be right inside, in our own person. Whether, therefore, storms financial, political, religious or demoniacal, come his way. the child of God may rest secure and be of good courage. The Lord is both able and willing to care for his interests and bring him off victor." (Z.'13-150.) As soon as the beast has apparently made out a clear case, perhaps by
outward, visible evidences, but surely by evidences from the Scriptures (distorted) of its standing with God, we may expect a very prompt and practical use of the "fire" (Lake 9:54) thus obtained. "The Image, as soon as vitalized, will very promptly use its influence, prestige, power, in every way to punish in the name of the Lord those who in any sense of the word it shall consider to be its opponents. Speedily none will be allowed to buy or sell, in the spiritual marts [or perhaps in any marts], except those who have either the mark or the number of the Beast, or of the Image, either in the right hand of co-operation or in the forehead of public confession. This will mean that the International Bible Students Association and all others not in affiliation with the Alliance will be subjected to radically coercive measures. Truth shall fall in the streets. (Isa. 59:14.) Righteousness will be unable to enter under the stress of the new order of things. For a time it will appear as though a great Christian victory had been won, shared equally by Papacy and Federated-Protestantism — no longer protesting." — Z.'13-343.
On the earth in the sight of men. — Amongst his own followers and among Christians unattached to either beast.
13:14. And deceiveth them that dwell on the earth. — The independent Christians just named.
By the means of those miracles. — Signs, the laying on of hands, doctrines of immortality, trinity and claims that none are qualified to understand the Bible aright except those consecrated by the imposition of holy orders by the episcopal succession. — Z.'80-1-2.
Which he had power to do in the sight of the beast. — While the papacy is still alive and active. — Rev. 19:20.
Saying. — By its own example.
To them that dwell on the earth. — Independent Christians. That they should ALSO make an image to the beast. — "From the year 1800 to 1846 was a time in which great numbers of new sects arose, whereas before that, they were few and prominent. This gave rise to uneasiness among the older denominations who wondered whereunto this thing would lead. As the Bible came to be read more and more by the masses, occasional individuals would feel free to preach what they thought it taught, regardless of denominational creeds and the views of the older sects. As a consequence, Protestants were fast splitting up into fragments. They began to say, By what means shall we check and stop this disposition to individual thought and opinion relative to the teachings of Scripture? They wanted to stop the very thing God desired; viz., that each individual
should be free and independent of restraint, with his faith based, not on the views of others, not on the decisions of Councils or Presbyters, nor in the decision of the Pope, nor in things approved of the head of the English church, but in the Word of God. The question came: How can we restrain these preachers? This was a quandary to an except the Roman and Episcopal churches, since these both claimed the 'Apostolic Succession,' and that this, by ordination, conferred upon their ministers special power and authority to preach and to administer the 'Sacraments'; hence that no others had a right to do so, but were clerical pretenders. Other denominations could not claim this continuation of apostolic power through their preachers, but simply set them apart by prayer, consequently those of one denomination could not object that the preachers of other denominations, as well as all laymen, were not as truly authorized of God to expound the Scriptures as their own clergy.
"But the example of the Church of England showed what a prestige she had by reason of the voice of authority with, which she commanded a reverence for her clergy and her teachings. This teaching by example was not lost. The various denominations felt a necessity for some common Standard of Doctrine which would be supported and upheld by all of them, and thus give prestige to their teachings, and bring the combined influence of all against any further advance in knowledge or the development of any different phase of truth. Thus they would protect themselves by being able to say: The combined opinion of all Protestants is against you; therefore you are heretics, and therefore we will shun you, and not call you Brethren, but use all our influence against you. This was done by the formation of the 'Evangelical Alliance.' It was stated to be one of the objects of the Alliance (and we believe the principal one) to 'Promote between the different Evangelical denominations, an effective co-operation in the efforts to repel common enemies and dangers.'
"Do not understand us as opposing the Christians represented in that Alliance; we are opposed merely to their attempt to muzzle truth, and to prevent the opening up of any other truths buried by Papacy than those which they had received. It is far from our purpose to say that they intentionally combined against the unfolding of truth, nor would we say this of Papists. But we do say, that by their action they were following Papacy's tactics, and that in that Alliance they did make the Image of the Beast. It has tended to make a separation clear and distinct between the Clergy and the Laity.
"How much the Image resembles the Papal Beast may be Judged from the fact that Papacy acknowledged the Image — owned it as a creditable likeness — by the Pope sending 'Greetings' to the last meeting of the Evangelical Alliance. Strange to say, the delegates to the Alliance had so far lost sight of the principles and doctrines which led to the protests against the Papal church (that it was the Harlot church — Antichrist — Man of Sin — mentioned in the Scriptures) that they actually felt flattered by the Pontiff's notice, instead of becoming alarmed and examining how and why he who is 'The Chief Antichrist' should feel pleased to greet them as fellows. A prominent Presbyterian minister present at the above named meeting mentioned the 'Pope's Greeting' with evident pleasure and satisfaction to the writer.
"A prominent characteristic of the Beast copied by the Image is the honoring of a special class, the Clergy, with special honors and titles. They are known as Revs., Divines, etc., but Jesus the Divine said: 'Ye call Me Lord and Master, and ye say well, for so I am.' 'Be not ye called Rabbi, neither be ye called Master, for one is your Master, even Christ, and all ye are brethren.' (Matt. 23:8.) These titles are assumptions fashioned after those of Papacy. When the various denominations began their existence, more full of the spirit of Christ, they claimed no such high-sounding titles. The Reformers were not known as Rev., D. D., etc., but as John Knox, Martin Luther, etc. Unpretentious, like Jesus and the Apostles, they were intent upon serving God, and therefore became the servants (ministers) of the Church. But now the Clergy are far from being servants; they are Lords. They have itching ears, loving the approval of men. As pride and worldliness have come in, vital godliness and power have gradually departed. For the very same reason, they are losing all power to expound the Word of God — the gift of teaching — because 'God abhorreth the proud, but giveth grace (favor) to the humble.' We find ministers of all denominations ready to confess their ignorance of the Word. They appeal, for their information, back to the early reformers, and thus confess that they have less light than they. That their light should grow dim, and their spiritual life become dwarfed, is the natural result of their Joining the Image, and subscribing to creeds made in the fifteenth century, which, like the shoe of China, will not admit of any growth. It is a shoe a little larger than Papacy put upon its followers, but of the same sort.
"Papacy established the clerical hierarchy, who lorded it over God's heritage instead of serving their brethren as
Jesus explained — 'One is your Master; all ye are brethren,' and as Paul said: 'We are to speak the truth in love and grow up into Him in all things who is the Head, even Christ; from whom the whole Body fitly Joined together [not by creeds of men, hut by love begotten by the one Spirit of Truth] and compacted by that which every Joint supplied [every joint is every member, not the clergy only] maketh increase of the Body unto the edifying of itself in love,' thus coming 'to the unity of the faith, and of the knowledge of the Son of God.' (Eph. 4:15, 16.) As Papacy established the priesthood over the church, so Protestantism has established the same, and there is no opportunity for the Body to edify itself, every joint taking part. True, there is a seeming show of liberty at prayer meetings, etc, tut it is only upon the surface, for the ordained pastor is to watch zealously lest anything contrary to the teachings of his church should be expressed, and if so, to silence the audacious member at once, for the church creed is the rule, not the Word of God. If this is not sufficient, they must have a sort of church trial and excommunicate him ('kill him'). The trial, by the way, gives evidence of another likeness to the Beast, namely, the exaltation of the teachings of the organization above the Word of God, for all such are tried according to 'the authorities' of their church." — Z.'80-l-2.
"The Alliance endeavored to establish a standard of orthodoxy. They saw the power of the Papal argument, that it is the Church, and that all others are heretical. In this sense it was a copy, or image, of the Papal institution. It has been merely an Image without life or power for now more than sixty years." (Z.'13-342.) "And he told the inhabitants of the earth to erect a statue (possibly a symbol of corrupt public opinion) to the Wild Beast who had received the sword-stroke and yet had recovered." — Weym.
Which had the wound by a sword, and did live. — Which was smitten by the Sword of the Spirit in the hands of the reformers, but not persistently enough to kill it. (Heb. 4:12.) "It is important to observe that the wound of one of the heads is here ascribed to the whole beast." — Cook.
13:15. And he had power to give life. — Either "apostolic succession" or its effect. "It may not be known to many how much stress was laid upon the 'apostolic succession,' which was supposed to be a virtue transmitted through hundreds of years of Papal corruption, by the laying on of the hands of the Bishop. This, of course, was vested in the Roman church, and also in the English church on account of its being at first rather a secession from
Papacy than a reformation. To many minds, even among the clergy, there was a veneration for that ceremony, which neither Papacy nor the English church were averse to promoting." (Z.'80-1-2.) For the effect of this superstition on the mind of Wesley, see Rev. 9:1, 2. "The Lord's symbolic prophecy tells us that in the close of this Age the Image will receive life, vitality, energy, power. No longer will it stand as a mere Image. It will become as active as the Beast. Moreover, it will not be antagonistic to the Beast, but sympathetic, and cause that all shall either worship the Beast or the Image — all must be in harmony either with Catholicism, or with the Protestant Church Federation as soon as it receives the vitalizing breath." — Z.'13-343.
Unto the image of the beast. — "The vitality of the Image is to come from the two-horned Beast; the Church of England. A few years ago the Episcopal Church took an important step toward vitalizing the Church Federation movement That important step was the recognition of the ministers of the denominations represented in the Evangelical Alliance. Previously no minister not ordained by the laying on of hands of a Catholic or an Episcopalian bishop was allowed to preach from an Episcopalian pulpit. Perhaps this recognition of the Image is all the vitalization the Image needs, but we are inclined to expect more. For years the Episcopalians have proffered reordination to the ministers of the different denominations represented in the Evangelical Alliance. And they still proffer it. We have been inclined to expect that the ministers would finally concede the point and accept a reordination at the hands of an Episcopal bishop. But we are not sure of this. It is possible that, to meet the requirements of the case, some other way will be found by which the Episcopal Church will recognize the Church Federation without obligating the ministers to be reordained. We are waiting for this." (Z.'13-343.) "If the various ministers of other denominations in considerable numbers' accept reordination as ministers at the hands of Episcopalian Bishops, the validity of other ordination will be speedily questioned. The authority of this so-called 'Apostolic Ordination' will give seeming right of authority, dignity and power. After the prominent ministers of various denominations submit themselves to such reordination, the 'lesser lights' will make a rush for it." — Z.'10-308.
Canon Henson, of Westminster Abbey, has said: "The logical goal of modern tendencies is not toward Disestablishment, but toward a fuller and worthier Establishment. Why should not the nation draw into its service all the
organized Christianity instead of limiting itself to a single denomination? I rejoice to observe a beginning made in this direction by recent legislation, which has recognized for certain civic purposes the status of Nonconformist clergymen." (Z.'06-6.) The change of name of the "Image of the Beast" to that of "False Prophet" in Rev. 16:13, between the sixth and seventh plagues, indicates it was vitalized prior to the publication of Vol. VII (the 7th plague). Truly it now lives — in the minds of the clergy — but it will grow stronger.
The matter is growing in the minds of those interested, as the following dispatches show: "Washington, Dec. 31, 1916. — In a signed document addressed to the nation, more than fifty prelates and laymen of various denominations representing many sections of the country have united in a warning against what they declare may be a premature peace in Europe which 'may bring a curse instead of a blessing.'" "Last winter commissions of all American Protestant churches met at Garden City, L. I., for the first time, and adopted a general platform on which it recommended that the World Conference on Faith and Order proceed. Pope Benedict XV. sent a letter to the commissions, assuring them of his 'deep interest and prayers.' " — Literary Digest, January 13, 1917.
That the image of the beast should both speak. — Thus far he has been significantly "silent" as far as claiming any real power or authority is concerned; but the time for the breaking of the silence is near. — Jer. 8:14-17; Rev. 8:1.
And cause that as many as would not worship the image of the beast. — "Worship of this symbolic beast and his image is to be the great test or trial upon professing Christians in every province of symbolic Babylon in the end of this Age. And we have the same inspired record as authority for the statement that only those who refuse to render worship to those powerfully influential religious systems (symbolized by the beast and his image) will be counted by the Lord as 'overcomers' and be made His joint-heirs as members of His elect Church. (Rev. 20:4.) And there are some the world over who, with a courage not less than that of Shadrach, Meshach and Abed-nego, declare publicly that the Lord God alone shall have the worship and the service which they can render. The faithful few will be exposed to fiery experiences — boycotted socially, boycotted in business, slandered in every conceivable manner, and often by those of whom they least expect it, who, according to the Lord's declaration, will say 'all manner of evil against them falsely.' (Matt. 5:11,12.)"  — Z.'99-170.
Should be killed. — "Soon we shall have their 'Union' or 'Confederacy' (Isa. 8:12), and the bitter fruits of Union in error will speedily manifest themselves in tyranny, as during the Dark Ages." (Z.'04-212.) "To us the Scriptures indicate that the prosperity of the Federated Protestant 'Image' will for a little time be so great, so pronounced, and its arrogance become so great that the sympathy of the masses will be entirely alienated and turned into bitterness." (Z.'10-309). It may be objected that the Church-would have no part in the killing of their fellow worshippers, but ecclesiastics themselves have a better understanding of the ecclesiastical mind and ecclesiastical conscience. The following is from the pen of Rt. Rev. Chas. D. Williams, Protestant Episcopal Bishop of Michigan:
"It is an appalling thought that the Church should have had a part in the crime of Calvary, and yet it did, and that the chief part. The ecclesiastical mind is a closed mind — and there is nothing it resents so much as being pried open to receive a new idea. Its settled rule of judgment, its accepted test of truth, is, 'What is new is never true, and what is true is never new.' The other characteristic of a perverted religion is the ecclesiastical conscience. It is strikingly illustrated by one Good Friday scene. A procession is sweeping through the streets of Jerusalem, bound for the Governor's Palace. Who compose this procession? They are the religious leaders of the people the prominent divines, the chief ecclesiastics. What is the business they have in mind? They are intent on committing the greatest crime in history. But at Pilate's threshold they stop. Why? Ah, they have stumbled across a canon of the Church. If they should enter a heathen house that Passover morning, they would become ceremonially defiled and unfit to partake of the sacrament." (Z.'15-339.) "In 1528 Prof. Tyndale, having prepared his MS., published it in Germany, because of the opposition of the English clergy. He imported his New Testaments into London, in whose shops the people began to purchase them. At this same time the Germans were learning something of the New Testament and its different teachings, from Luther and his associates. The Church of England bishops forthwith bought up the entire edition in the shops, and publicly burnt them in front of St. Paul's Cathedral, London. They knew that the eighteen Ecumenical Councils had declared to be true Christian faith many things not taught in the Bible, and had omitted many things that are taught therein. They feared that the people, becoming Bible students, would know of these things, and thus would be upset the general belief based in the
creeds — and not in the Bible. Then, too, they warned the people against putting any construction upon the Bible that would make it different from the teaching of the so-called 'Apostolic Bishops' in the creeds — threatening them with eternal torment. As it was, Tyndale and some of the others interested in the Bible suffered martyrdom, as enemies of the 'Apostolic Bishops,' and their creeds and institutions." — Z.'15-253. Are the clergy divinely ordained?
13:16. And he causeth all, both small and great. — The great feast which preceded the fall of Babylon would seem to correspond well with the great denominational union expected soon, and the season of rejoicing which will accompany it. The gold and silver vessels of the Lord's house which were profaned may fitly represent not only the precious truths of Divine Revelation, but also the Lord's consecrated people — the golden vessels representing the Little Flock, and the more numerous silver vessels representing the 'Great Company.' What may be the character of the defilement and injury of these is of course problematical; but in any case we remember that those consecrated vessels were all highly honored, and restored to the Temple by Cyrus, and likewise we know that not only the truths of Divine Revelation will all be cared for by our Lord, but also that all that are His shall be glorified in the spiritual Temple which He will rear Shortly." — Z.'99-175.
[Rich and] Poor AND RICH. — "So popular will Federated Churchianity become that to even criticize it will be a 'crime' worthy of crucifixion in some form — socially and financially, if not physically. Politicians will quickly realize that their bread is buttered on that side, and be ready to enact legislation of any kind desired by the Federation. Mammon-worship will take on new forms temporarily, bat power will soon debauch the unregenerate mass and drive out the regenerate faithful who may temporarily be misled by the great 'Union' movement in the name of Christ, but without His Spirit or authority." — Z.'06-6.
Free and bond. — "It is altogether possible, indeed probable we think, that John's course which brought him into conflict with Herod was in some degree typical of the course of the Gospel Church in this present time; and of the course of events that may be expected. If it be a type, Herod would represent civil government, and the unlawful wife would represent the nominal church, which throughout the symbolic Scriptures is represented as a woman, Jezebel, etc. Should it prove to be a type by its fulfilment in antitype, the fulfilment will probably be on something like the following lines; (1) A partial reunion
of Church and State. [This has now been accomplished by the Alliance of the United States with Great Britain.] (2) In such case it would become the duty of the true Church, the forerunners and announcers of the Messianic Kingdom, to reprove the civil powers as well as the nominal church systems, and to declare their union unlawful — contrary to the Word of God. (3) The effect of this would pretty surely be to awaken the animosity of both civil and religious powers; but it would draw out specially the animosity and venom of the latter. (4) The church nominal, in her false position would be anxious to stifle the reproofs and to destroy the reprovers, and the effect would be that the civil power would be induced to pass such legislation as would restrain the liberty of the faithful ones and hinder them from public utterances; — as John was hindered by imprisonment. (5) Herodias' daughter (united Protestantism) will become the tool for the destruction of the most loyal servants of God." — Z.'98-95.
To [receive] GIVE HIM a mark in their right hand or in their [foreheads] FOREHEAD. — By contrast with Ex. 13:9; 28:26-38; Deut 6:8; Z.'07-265; Rev. 7:3; 14:1; Ezek. 9:4-6. "Consecration to the service of the beast is what is signified here." (Cook.) (Lev. 19:28.) "All classes of Christians must bow; all must, in some way, give evidence of their support of the Image and consecration to its interests and laws; either a public, open profession of being members of the Alliance, and hence supporters (mark in forehead), or at least a giving of some assistance and influence to the principles of Image organization — (the right-hand support)." (Z.'80-l-2.) This implies a re-establishment of the inquisition soon — in some form of house-to-house "investigation" or public enrollment.
13:17. [And] That no man might buy or sell. — 'The 'buying and selling,' like the other features, is symbolic, and refers to dealing in spiritual things. [But it may be literally fulfilled as well in the year of prospective famine now at hand.] None may be recognized as having any right to teach or preach or baptize or administer the emblems of our Lord's death, except those licensed by some orthodox member of the Image, and acts of such persons ('unlicensed') are not counted valid." — Z.'80-1-2.
Save he that had the mark [or the name] of the beast. — Protestants affiliated with the Federal Council of Churches  —already "marked," stamped O. K. by the papacy.
Or his name. — Roman Catholics.
Or the number of his name. — Consent to the principle of clergy rule in matters of faith, order and war (murder.) —Rev 15:2.
13:18. Here is wisdom. Let him that hath [understanding] AN EAR count the number of the beast. — "Here is scope for ingenuity. Let people of shrewd intelligence calculate the number of the Wild Beast; for it indicates a certain man, and his number is 666." — Weym.
For it is the number of a man. — The Man of Sin, the Papacy. — Rev. 19:20; 2 Thes. 2:3.
[And his number is] Six hundred threescore and six. — In the Greek this number is six hundred (represented by the Greek letter χ), plus sixty (represented by the Greek letter ξ), plus six (represented by the Greek letter ζ). It is not as though it read six plus six plus six.
"The following extract on this point is from a work entitled The Reformation, bearing the date of 1832:
" 'Mrs. A.,' said Miss Emmons, 'I saw a very curious fact the other day; I have dwelt upon it much, and will mention it. A person, lately, was witnessing a ceremony of the Romish Church.
As the pope passed him in the procession, splendidly dressed in his pontifical robes, the gentleman's eye rested on these full, blazing letters in front of his mitre (tiara — crown): VICARIVS FILII DEI, the Vicar of the Son of God. His thoughts, with the rapidity of lightning, reverted to Rev. 13:18. ' 'Will you turn to it?' said Mrs. A. Alice opened the New Testament, and read: 'Let him that hath understanding count the number of the beast: for it is the number of a man; and his number is Six hundred threescore and six.' She paused, and Miss Emmons said, 'He took out his pencil, and marking the 'numerical letters of the inscription on his tablet, it stood 666.'" (Smith.) This explanation was approved by Pastor Russell, and was given by him at a Convention Question Meeting.
On the pope's crown in the Vatican museum is the recognized and most used title of the pope, VICARIVS FILII DEI (Vicar of the Son of God.) The word VICARIVS is on the top of the threefold crown. The word FILII is on the second circlet; and the words are made from dark, shining precious Jewels. The word DEI is on the under part of the threefold crown and is made of 100 diamonds. "The Tiara is a bee-hive shaped, somewhat bulging head-covering, ornamented, with three crowns. It is first mentioned
by Pope Constantine, in A. D. 715. It first appears on papal coins in the reign of Sergius III., A. D. 911. At this period it was merely a cap of white stuff. The papal coins of the 11th century leave it doubtful whether the ornamental band at the lower edge of the tiara is intended to represent a crown or merely a decoration. It is only in representations dating from the late 13th century that the circlet appears as a regular spiked crown. The second circlet was added by Pope Boniface VIII, A. D. 1303. The third was added under Clement V, A. D. 1311." (Brit) The reason for the addition of any of these crowns is unknown, or why the pope should have any crown at all. The words VICARIVS FILII DEI are, it is said, also carved over the entrance to the Vatican.


"Count Me the swords that have come."
"Lord, thousands on thousands are ready."
"Lo! these are too many, and with them are some
Whose hearts and whose hands are not steady.
He whose soul does not burn,
Let him take up his tent and return.

"Count Me the swords that remain."
"Lord, hundreds on hundreds are daring."
"These yet are too many for Me to attain
To the victory I am preparing.
Lead them down to the brink
Of the waters of Marah to drink."

"Lord, those who remain are but few,
And the hosts of the foe are appalling,
And what can a handful such as we do?"
"When ye hear from beyond, My voice calling,
Sound the trump! Hold the light!
Great Midian will melt in your sight!"

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